​​ We use cookies to enhance your experience on our site. By continuing to use the site you agree to our use of cookies. Privacy & Cookies.​

 
Archaeopress logo
Archaeopress Publishing Ltd, Summertown Pavilion, 18-24 Middle Way, Summertown, Oxford OX2 7LG, England
tel +44 (0) 1865 311914 fax +44 (0) 1865 512231   email: info@archaeopress.com
Monthly AP Alert - join our mailing list today Archaeopress on Facebook Archaeopress on Twitter Archaeopress on Linked In Archaeopress Blog
Home  
|
  Browse by Subject  
|
  Browse by Series  
|
  Catalogues  
|
  Join Our Mailing List  
|
  Visit Our Blog  
|
  Login (Private Customers)  
|
  Login (Institutional Subscriptions)  
|
  View Basket

Search

title, author, ISBN, keyword

Browse for books in the following languages

ARCHAEOPRESS ARCHAEOLOGY
ACCESS ARCHAEOLOGY
ARCHAEOPRESS JOURNALS
DISTRIBUTED
PUBLISHERS
DIGITAL EDITIONS
OPEN ACCESS PLATFORM
Ordering Information
About Us
Publish With Us
Standing Orders
Trade Sales
Contact Us
Request Review Copy

Winchester Studies

The Winchester Excavations Committee was founded in 1962 with the aim of using all available evidence – documentary, archaeological, and scientific – to study the development of Winchester and its inhabitants over a period of two thousand years. The Winchester Studies series, which is divided into eleven main research areas, presents the findings of the most comprehensive archaeological and historical enquiry ever attempted in an English or north European City. The Committee is registered with the Charity Commission for England and Wales, charity no. 210455. More information about its work and publications can be found at www.winchesterstudies.org.uk

Archaeopress is very pleased to be working with the Committee not only to bring the latest volumes in the series to publication (beginning with Volume 10: Environment and Agriculture of Early Winchester), but also to make the full backlist available in new printed and online editions. These reprints are, for the most part, based on scans of the original publications, with minor changes to present folding or pull-out sections on standard folio pages. Series editor, Professor Martin Biddle, presents a short editorial preface to these new editions, available to read below.

Series Editor: Professor Martin Biddle CBE, FBA

Martin Biddle is an Emeritus Fellow of Hertford College, Oxford, and Honorary Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge. He was the first Lecturer in Medieval Archaeology in England, at the University of Exeter (1963–67) and has held many other distinguished academic positions worldwide. He is the Founder and Director of the Winchester Excavations Committee (1962–present) and the Winchester Research Unit (1968–present). Professor Biddle is Archaeological Consultant for St Albans Cathedral, former Chairman of the Fabric Advisory Committee (FAC) for Winchester Cathedral, and former Archaeological Consultant for Canterbury Cathedral. In June 2014, he was awarded a CBE for ‘services to archaeology’.


Standing Order Ref: WS

Preface to the online and reprinted editions:
Much time has passed since we published our first Winchester Studies volume in 1976, and much too has changed in the world of book production. As a result of developments in digital technologies, academic publications now reach wider audiences via options to read online and print on demand. From the earliest days of the development of technology to enable online publication, we have been exploring options for digitising our volumes, while maintaining close attention to the quality of reproduction, especially of our large scale and complex illustrations. Those familiar with our volumes will know that many of these illustrations run across long fold-out sheets, not immediately amenable to digital reproduction. Yet the team at Archaeopress have handled complexities such as these (and many more) innovatively and with care, ensuring important facets like scale and pagination are maintained throughout each volume. It is only through the expertise, dedication, and enthusiasm of Archaeopress and their team that this attention to detail and accuracy in digital reproduction has been achieved, and for that we are very grateful.

Martin Biddle
8 November 2021



NEW (REPRINT AND OPEN ACCESS): The Roman Cemetery at Lankhills Pre-Roman and Roman Winchester. Part II by Giles Clarke. Hardback; 215x276 pages; 614pp. 777 2021 Winchester Studies 3. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781803270081. £90.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781803270098. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Winchester Studies 3.ii: Outside the north gate of Venta Belgarum, Roman Winchester, a great cemetery stretched for 500 yards along the road to Cirencester. Excavations at Lankhills from 1967 to 1972 uncovered 451 graves, many elaborately furnished, at the northern limits of this cemetery, and dating from the fourth century A.D. This book, the second in a two-part study of Venta Belgarum, which forms the third volume of Winchester Studies, describes the excavations of these burials and analyses in detail both the graves and their contents. There are detailed studies and important re-assessments of many categories of object, but it is the information about late Roman burial, religion, and society which is of special interest.

This is a reprint of the volume originally published in 1979 (Oxford, ISBN 9780198131779). The reprint is based on scans of the original publication, with minor changes to present folding or pull-out sections on standard folio pages. A brief introduction to the reprint is provided by the author, Giles Clarke.

Reviews of the 1979 edition:
This meticulous and detailed work is of major importance for the study of Roman burial practices and their relevance for our knowledge of Roman religion. No such comprehensive study has appeared elsewhere … a model of what such a work should be.Prof. J.C. Mann, British Book News (1980) ;

The excavation and report on the Lankhills cemetery is something of a landmark. It is a lesson to Roman archaeologists about what they have been missing through neglect of their cemetery sites, and also a lesson to every-one engaged in cemetery site studies, whatever their period, in how to analyse and present their evidence to maximum advantage. This model publication will be an indispensable work of reference for many years to come.Dr Sonia Hawkes, Times Literary Supplement (1980) ;

… auch ein Musterbeispiel für die gesamte spätantike provinzialrömische Archäologie.’ [‘… also a model example for the whole of provincial Roman archaeology in the late Roman period.Prof. Jochen Garbsch, Bayerische Vorgeschichtsblätter (1981)

FORTHCOMING: Environment and Agriculture of Early Winchester edited by Martin Biddle, Jane Renfrew and Patrick Ottaway. Hardback; 215x276 pages; 430pp. Print RRP: £75.00. 783 2021 Winchester Studies 10. ISBN 9781803270661. Buy Now

Winchester Studies 10: This wide-ranging study uses historical and archaeological evidence to consider humanity's interactions with the environment, fashioning agricultural, gardening and horticultural regimes over a millennium and a half. The discussions of archaeological finds of seeds from discarded rubbish including animal fodder and bedding show the wide range of wild species present, as well as cultivated and gathered plants in the diet of inhabitants and livestock. Pollen analyses, and studies of wood, mosses, and beetles, alongside a look at the local natural environment, and comparison with medieval written records give us a tantalizing picture of early Winchester. The earliest record is by Ælfric of Eynsham in his 11th-century Nomina Herbarum. From medieval records come hints of gardens within the city walls, and considerable detail about agriculture and horticulture, and produce brought into the city. Wild fruit and nuts were also being gathered from the countryside for the town’s markets and mills. At St Giles’ Fair exotic imported spices and fruits were also sold. All these sources of evidence are brought together to reveal more fully the roles of agriculture and the environment in the development Winchester.

Table of Contents (provisional):
Preface ;

Part 1: Introduction and Environment ;
1. Introduction – Martin Biddle, Jane M. Renfrew with a contribution by Patrick Ottaway ;
2. The Natural Environment of the Winchester Region – Jane M. Renfrew and Patrick Ottaway ;

Part 2: The Written Evidence ;
3. Aelfric's Nomina Herbarum and the Plant Remains from Anglo-Saxon Winchester – Debby Banham ;
4. Agriculture and the Use of Plants in Medieval Winchester: the Documentary Evidence – Derek J. Keene ;
5. Gardens in Medieval and Later Winchester: the Castle, Wolvesey Palace and Eastgate House – Beatrice Clayre and Martin Biddle ;
6. Field Crops and their Cultivation in Hampshire, 1200-1350, in the Light of Documentary Evidence – Jan Z. Titow ;

Part 3: The Archaeological Evidence ;
7. Pollen Analysis of Archaeological Deposits in Winchester – Erwin Isenberg and Jane M. Renfrew ;
8. The Identification and Utilization of Wood in Early Winchester – Suzanne Keene ;
9. The Roman Plant Remains – Peter Murphy ;
10. The Plant Economy and Vegetation of Anglo-Saxon Winchester – Michael Monk ;
11. Plant Remains and Agriculture in Norman and Later Medieval Winchester – Francis J. Green ;
12. Roman and Post-Roman Moss from Lower Brook Street Moss – Dorian Williams and Jane M. Renfrew ;
13. Insect Fauna from Lower Brook Street – Peter J. Osborne ;

14. Conclusion – Patrick Ottaway
FORTHCOMING (OPEN ACCESS): The People of Early Winchester by Caroline M. Stuckert. Hardback; 215x276mm; 528pp; extensively illustrated with photographs, line drawings, maps, and charts. Print RRP: £80.00 (eBook to be Open Access). 782 2021 Winchester Studies 9. ISBN 9781803270142. Buy Now

Winchester Studies 9.i: The People of Early Winchester traces the lives, health, and diseases of Winchester's inhabitants as seen in their skeletal remains from the mid-third century to the mid-sixteenth century, a period of over 1,300 years. Although the populations of other British urban areas, York and London in particular, have been studied over an extended period, this volume is unique in providing a continuous chronological window, rather than a series of isolated studies. It is particularly notable for the large sample of Anglo-Saxon burials dated to the 8th - 10th centuries, which provide a bridge between the earlier Romano-British material and the later medieval samples.

This study includes information on demography, physical characteristics, dental health, disease, and trauma collected from over 2,000 skeletons excavated from the Roman Cemetery at Lankhills and the Anglo-Saxon and medieval cemeteries of the Old and New Minster and Winchester Cathedral, as well as other Early Anglo-Saxon sites in neighbouring areas of Hampshire. The study establishes the underlying continuity of the population in spite of massive culture change between the Roman and Early Saxon periods, and delineates the increasing tendency to rounder skulls seen in the medieval period, a trend which is found in continental Europe at the same time. There were also significant differences through time in disease patterns and trauma. Leprosy, for example, is found only in post-Roman skeletons, while decapitations are seen only in Roman skeletons. Weapons injuries are confined to Anglo-Saxon and medieval individuals, although broken bones were common during the Roman period.

This is a new edition of the volume originally published in 2017 (Oxford, ISBN 9780198131700). The new edition will appear online first, with a printed edition to follow in the future.

About the Author:
Caroline M. Stuckert (Connie) holds a B. A. in history from Bryn Mawr College, and an M. A. in physical anthropology and Ph. D. in archaeology and physical anthropology from the University of Pennsylvania. She has taught at Muhlenberg College and the University of Pennsylvania. Her research interests centre on the British Isles from the Iron Age through medieval periods, and she has conducted research and participated in excavations in both England and Ireland. In addition, she has enjoyed a 25-year career as a consultant and senior museum executive. A native Philadelphian, Connie has spent extended periods in Britain, and currently lives in the Philadelphia suburbs.

Reviews of the 2017 edition:
Just one of an incredibly comprehensive series examining the history of Winchester, this book uncovers the story of the city's occupants from AD 250 to 1540, as told by their skeletal remains.Emma Watts-Plumpkin, Current Archaeology ;

This volume is a valuable contribution to long-term population history. The production and illustration standards are high, and Caroline Stuckert should be congratulated for finally bringing all of this important research to publication ...Sam Lucy, Antiquity

Table of Contents:
List of illustrations ;
List of tables ;
List of abbreviations ;
List of references ;

Part 1 IntroductionMartin Biddle and Birthe Kjølbye-Biddle ;
1:Introduction ;
2:Concept ;
3:The origin, growth, and completion of this study ;
4:The outcome: a summary ;

Part 2 Romano-British Populations from Lankhills and other cemeteries in WinchesterCaroline M. Stuckert ;
1:Introduction ;
2:Demography ;
3:Physical characteristics ;
4:Dentition ;
5:Pathology ;
FORTHCOMING (REPRINT AND OPEN ACCESS): The Winchester Mint and Coins and Related Finds from the Excavations of 1961–71 edited by Martin Biddle. Hardback; 215x276mm; 768pp. Print RRP: £115.00 (eBook to be Open Access). 781 2021 Winchester Studies 8. ISBN 9781803270128. Buy Now

Winchester Studies 8: Edited by Martin Biddle with a catalogue of the known coins of the mint by Yvonne Harvey, this volume records and illustrates the minting of silver pennies in Winchester between the reigns of Alfred the Great and Henry III, a period of three and a half centuries. At the Mint, which was situated in the area of the High Street to the east of where the city’s cross now stands, at least 24 million silver pennies (possibly as many as 50 million) were struck. Five and a half thousand survive in museums and collections all over the world. These have been sought out and photographed (some 3200 coins in 6400 images detailing both sides), and minutely catalogued by Yvonne Harvey for this volume.

During the period from late in the reign of Alfred to the time of Henry III, dies for striking the coins were produced centrally under royal authority in the most sophisticated system of monetary control at the time in the western world. In this first account of a major English mint to have been made in forty years, a team of leading authorities have studied and analysed the use the Winchester moneyers made of the dies, and together with the size, weight, and the surviving number of coins from each pair of dies, have produced a detailed account of the varying fortunes of the mint over this period. Their results are critical for the economic history of England and the changing status of Winchester over this long period, and provide the richest available source for the history of the name of the city and the personal names of its citizens in the later Anglo-Saxon period.

FORTHCOMING (REPRINT AND OPEN ACCESS): Object and Economy in Medieval Winchester Artefacts from Medieval Winchester: Part II by Martin Biddle. Hardback; 2 vols; 215x276mm; 1,410pp. Print RRP: £195.00 (eBook to be Open Access). 780 2021 Winchester Studies 7. ISBN 9781803270227. Buy Now

Winchester Studies 7.ii: Over six thousand objects were recovered during the Winchester excavations of 1961 to 1971 – by far the most extensive corpus of stratified and datable medieval objects yet presented from a single city. Martin Biddle and the team of eighty-three contributors assembled by the Winchester Research Unit have used this material to investigate not only the industries and arts, but the economic, cultural, and social life of medieval Winchester. Their findings are being published in two parts: the first part, by Katherine Barclay, will deal with the pottery remains; and this second part in two volumes by Martin Biddle covers all the objects from the finest products of the Anglo-Saxon goldsmith’s skill to the iron tenter-hooks of the cloth industry. Martin Biddle’s study of the objects identifies change through time, and traces variation across the broad social scale – from cottage to palace – represented in the excavated sites. Using the objects as evidence for the economy of the medieval city, it also throws new light on some of the great questions of medieval industry and artistic production: amongst them the development of the textile industry, the origins of wire-drawing and the manufacture of pins, the beginnings of window-glass production, and the earliest glass painting. These objects are an essential part of the evidence for the development and changing character of the excavated sites to be published in forthcoming volumes of Winchester Studies on the Minsters. To ensure complete integration between the objects and the sites, every object in this volume is related to the context in which it was found and a concordance provides a detailed conspectus phase by phase of each of the twenty sites excavated between 1961-71, and of the objects found in each phase.

This is a reprint of the volume originally published in 1990 (Oxford, ISBN 9780198131755). The reprint is based on scans of the original publication, with minor changes to present folding or pull-out sections on standard folio pages.

Reviews of the 1990 edition:
The Sears Roebuck catalogue of medieval England … there is at present nothing so handsomely comprehensive, and tightly managed, from excavations of medieval town sites elsewhere. An exemplary work not only as a treasury of reference, but as an object lesson in procedure and the critical presentation of methodology.Prof. G.H. Martin, Journal of the Society of Archivists (1991) ;

[This] will be the work to which one will turn first when in search of information about many English Medieval manufactures and artefacts … These volumes are not only part of the record of about the most important medieval excavations undertaken in this century; they have an independent value as major works of reference.Prof. James Campbell, English Historical Review (1991)

FORTHCOMING (REPRINT AND OPEN ACCESS): Property and Piety in Early Medieval Winchester The Anglo-Saxon Minsters of Winchester: Part III by Alexander R. Rumble. Hardback; 215x276mm; 284pp. Print RRP: £58.00 (eBook to be Open Access). 779 2021 Winchester Studies 4. ISBN 9781803270104. Buy Now

Winchester Studies 4.iii: Winchester in the Anglo-Saxon and early Norman periods was an important royal and religious centre. Property and Piety comprises an edition and translation, with extensive commentary, of thirty-three Anglo-Saxon and Norman documents relating to the topography and minsters of early medieval Winchester. These texts record the physical effects on the city of the foundation and expansion of the three neighbouring minsters, and also of the removal of the New Minster to Hyde in about 1110. They record political, religious, and cultural aspects of the tenth-century reform of Benedictine monasticism, of which Winchester was a leading centre. The splendid New Minster refoundation charter, composed by Bishop Æthelwold and granted by King Edgar in 966, is here translated for the first time. A full examination is also made of the old minster confirmation charter, probably fabricated in the reign of Æthelred. The volume also includes all Anglo-Saxon grants of land within Winchester and a reappraisal of the evidence for the beneficial hidation of the surrounding estate of Chilcomb. This book is the third part of the fourth volume in the Winchester Studies series on The Anglo-Saxon Minsters of Winchester.

This is a reprint of the volume originally published in 2002 (Oxford, ISBN 9780198134138).

Reviews of the 2002 edition:
[The interest of] this further magnificent number in the series of Winchester Studies … goes far beyond urban history and topography [and centres] upon the three minsters of the late Anglo-Saxon cityJohn Cowdrey, Journal of Theological Studies (2003) ;

Previous volumes in the Winchester Studies series, which have appeared under the general editorship of Martin Biddle, have all been exemplary products and this latest addition is no exception. … All of these documents, printed in two parallel columns, have been translated into modern English — a service that assuredly and considerably enlarges the readership and user ship of this volume. … Dr Rumble’s labours have attained a level of perfection that is difficult to achieve and that ought to be widely available as a superlative model for the rest of us.Professor Howard B. Clarke, Journal of the Society of Archivists (2004) ;

… highly rewarding. Thirty-three documents are printed, and each is accompanied by a facing-page translation into English; there is also an unusually rich level of annotation, especially about the language and phraseology of the documents … and their historical contents and contexts. It is splendid to have this detailed editorial intervention … a Rolls-Royce of a book — quietly elegant, pleasingly spacious, distinctly expensive, and deeply satisfying.Dr Nigel Ramsay, Archives (2003) ;

The volume [WS 4.iii] has been edited and produced to the highest standards … and is a worthy addition to the series of Winchester Studies.Mark Page, Hampshire FCA Society Newsletter (2004) ;

The first and not the least part of the study of the Winchester Minsters to appear [WS 4.iii], accompanying the remaining parts on the archaeology and architecture (4.i) and the cult of St Swithun (4.ii) …Anon. reviewer, Journal of the British Archaeological Association (2003)
FORTHCOMING (REPRINT AND OPEN ACCESS): The Cult of St Swithun The Anglo-Saxon Minsters of Winchester: Part II by Michael Lapidge. Hardback; 215x276 pages; 860pp. Print RRP: £115.00 (eBook to be Open Access). 778 2021 Winchester Studies 4. ISBN 9781803270203. Buy Now

Winchester Studies 4.ii: St Swithun was an obscure ninth-century bishop of Winchester about whom little was, and is, known. But following the translation of his relics from a conspicuous tomb into the Old Minster, Winchester, on 15 July 971, the massive rebuilding of the cathedral, and a vigorous publicity campaign by Bishop Æthelwold (963-84), St Swithun became one of the most popular and important English saints, whose cult was widespread not only in England but also in Ireland, Scandinavia, and France. The present volume includes new and full editions of all the relevant texts—hagiographical, liturgical, and historical—in Latin, Old English, and Middle English, many of which have never been published before: these illuminate the origins and development of St Swithun’s cult. No dossier of an important English saint has been published on this scale until now: the wealth of this volume sheds new light not only on St Swithun himself, but also on the times during which his cult was at the peak of its popularity.

This is a reprint of the volume originally published in 2003 (Oxford, ISBN 9780198131830). The reprint is based on scans of the original publication, with minor changes to present folding or pull-out sections on standard folio pages.

About the Author
Michael Lapidge, FBA is a scholar in the field of Medieval Latin literature, particularly that composed in Anglo-Saxon England during the period 600–1100 AD; he is an emeritus Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge and Fellow of the British Academy, and winner of the 2009 Sir Israel Gollancz Prize.

Reviews of the 2003 edition:
This lavish and beautifully produced volume assembles, edits, translates and meticulously classifies the texts relating to the cult of Swithun … a monument to the erudition, both wide and deep, of its author … the product of 30 years’ work.Dr Catherine Cubitt, The Church Times (14 May 2004) ;

... a breathtaking achievement … the product of scholarship of the very highest order … self evidently so comprehensive, informative, authoritative, and instructive … also accessible and worthwhile. It will be a most distinguished addition to the Winchester Studies Series.Prof. Simon Keynes: pre-publication report (2001) ;

Nous n’avons qu’un regret … que ce volume [WS 4.ii], superbement édité dans les Winchester Studies, n’ait été publié dans nos Acta Sanctorum …Fr. Robert Godding SJ, Analecta Bollandiana (2004)
FORTHCOMING (REPRINT AND OPEN ACCESS): Survey of Medieval Winchester by Derek Keene. Hardback; 2 vols; 1550pp; Print RRP: £210.00 (eBook to be Open Access). 776 2021 Winchester Studies 2. ISBN 9781803270180. Buy Now

Winchester Studies 2: By the fourteenth century Winchester had lost its former eminence, but in trades, manufactures, and population, as well as by virtue of its administrative and ecclesiastical role, the city was still one of the major provincial centres in England. This Survey is based on a reconstruction of the histories of the houses, plots, gardens, and fields in the city and suburbs between c. 1300 and c. 1540, although in many instances both earlier and later periods are also covered. The reconstruction takes the form of a gazetteer (Part ii) of 1,128 histories of properties, together with accounts of 56 parish churches and the international fair of St Giles, all illustrated by detailed maps. There is also a biographical register (Part iii) concerning more than 8,000 property-holders, most of whom lived in Winchester. This is the first time that it has been possible to piece together such a precise and detailed picture of both the topography and the inhabitants of a medieval town. Part i of the book contains a full discussion of the significance of this material and, in a manner relevant to an understanding of life in medieval towns in general, describes and defines such matters as the evolution of the physical environment, housing, land-tenure, property values, the parochial structure, the practice and organization of trades, and the ways in which the citizens of Winchester adapted to the declining status of their city.

This is a reprint of the volume originally published in 1985 (Oxford, ISBN 9780198131816). The reprint is based on scans of the original publication, with minor changes to present folding or pull-out sections on standard folio pages.

Reviews of the 1985 edition:
Social and urban historians have in this volume a repository of data few medieval scholars would have dared attempt, much less thought possible to assemble.Prof. M. Altschul, American Historical Review (1986) ;

The entire work is an outstanding achievement of historical scholarship and the Clarendon Press has done it full justice in superb production. It should be studied with care by every medieval historian and is an essential purchase for any serious historical library.Prof. P.D.A. Harvey, English Historical Review (1986)
FORTHCOMING (REPRINT AND OPEN ACCESS): Winchester in the Early Middle Ages An Edition and Discussion of The Winton Domesday edited by Martin Biddle. Hardback; 215x276 pages; 680pp. Print RRP: £96.00 (eBook to be Open Access). 775 2021 Winchester Studies 1. ISBN 9781803270166. Buy Now

Winchester Studies 1: London and Winchester were not described in the Domesday Book, but the royal properties in Winchester were surveyed for Henry I about 1110 and the whole city was surveyed for Bishop Henry of Blois in 1148. These two surveys survive in a single manuscript, known as the Winton Domesday, and constitute the earliest and by far the most detailed description of an English or European town of the early Middle Ages. In the period covered Winchester probably achieved the peak of its medieval prosperity. From the reign of Alfred to that of Henry II it was a town of the first rank, initially centre of Wessex, then the principal royal city of the Old English state, and finally `capital’ in some sense, but not the largest city, of the Norman Kingdom. This volume provides a full edition, translation, and analyses of the surveys and of the city they depict, drawing on the evidence derived from archaeological excavation and historical research in the city since 1961, on personal- and place-name evidence, and on the recent advances in Anglo-Saxon numismatics.

This is a reprint of the volume originally published in 1976 (Oxford, ISBN 9780198131694). The reprint is based on scans of the original publication, with minor changes to present folding or pull-out sections on standard folio pages.

Reviews of the 1976 edition:
This book opens the definitive record of one of the greatest triumphs in urban archaeology: a triumph due … to the masterly way in which the whole operation, spread over many years, has been conducted.Sir Walter Oakeshott, The Antiquaries Journal (1980) ;

It is roses, roses, all the way … forming in the, for once justified, words of the blurb, “an unparalleled account of one of the principal European cities of the eleventh and twelfth centuries”.Prof. R.A. Brown, Economic History Review (1977)
end of results