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NEW: Laying the Foundations: Manual of the British Museum Iraq Scheme Archaeological Training Programme edited by John MacGinnis and Sébastien Rey. Paperback; 205x225mm; illustrated in full colour throughout. 808 2022. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781803271408. £40.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781803271415. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Laying the Foundations, which developed out of the British Museum’s ‘Iraq Scheme’ archaeological training programme, covers the core components for putting together and running an archaeological field programme. The focus is on practicality. Individual chapters address background research, the use of remote sensing, approaches to surface collection, excavation methodologies, survey with total (and multi) stations, use of a dumpy level, context classification, on-site recording, databases and registration, environmental protocols, conservation, photography, illustration, post-excavation site curation and report writing. While the manual is oriented to the archaeology of Iraq, the approaches are no less applicable to the Middle East more widely, an aim hugely facilitated by the open-source distribution of translations into Arabic and Kurdish.
NEW: Plant Food Processing Tools at Early Neolithic Göbekli Tepe by Laura Dietrich. Paperback; 205x290mm; 245pp; 103 figures, 62 tables, 33 plates (colour throughout). 798 2021. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781803270920. £40.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781803270937. Download Full PDF   Buy Now

Plant Food Processing Tools at Early Neolithic Göbekli Tepe reconstructs plant food processing at this key Pre-Pottery Neolithic (9600-8000 BC) site, with an emphasis on cereals, legumes and herbs as food sources, on grinding and pounding tools for their processing, and on the vessels implied in the consumption of meals and beverages. Functional investigations on grinding and pounding tools and on stone containers through use-wear and residue analyses are at the core of the book. Their corpus amounts to more than 7000 objects, constituting thus the largest collection published so far from the Neolithic of Upper Mesopotamia. The spectrum of tools and of processed plants is very broad, but porridges made of cereals, legumes and herbs, and beers predominate over bread-like food. The find contexts show that cooking took place around the well-known monumental buildings, while the large quantity of tools suggests feasting in addition to daily meals.

About the Author
Studies on the Palaeolithic of Western Eurasia Proceedings of the XVIII UISPP World Congress (4-9 June 2018, Paris, France) Volume 14, Session XVII-4 & Session XVII-6 edited by György Lengyel, Jarosław Wilczyński, Marta Sánchez de la Torre, Xavier Mangado, Josep Maria Fullola. Paperback; 205x290mm; 262 pages; 109 figures, 34 tables (54 pages in colour). Papers in English (one in French). 760 2021. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789697179. £42.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789697186. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Studies on the Palaeolithic of Western Eurasia presents the papers from Sessions XVII-4 and XVII-6 of the 18th UISPP World congress (Paris, June 2018). The geographic areas discussed in the Session 4, Central and Eastern Europe, are prehistorically strongly articulated, their cultural successions are highly similar, and they share several common archaeological issues for investigation. The papers disseminate a wealth of archaeological data from Bavaria to the Russian Plain, and discuss Aurignacian, Gravettian, Epigravettian, and Magdalenian perspectives on lithic tool kits and animal remains. The papers of Session 6 are concerned with lithic raw material procurement in the Caucasus and in three areas of the Iberian peninsula.

About the Editors György Lengyel an associate professor at the Department of Prehistory and Archaeology of the University of Miskolc, Hungary, and research associate at the Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals of the Polish Academy of Sciences. He graduated at the University of Miskolc, and received a PhD degree from the University of Haifa, Israel. His main field of research is the Upper Palaeolithic of Central Europe. The focus of his research is hunter-gatherer subsistence strategy and the formation of the corresponding archaeological record. He conducts research projects on the Upper Palaeolithic of the Levant and Central Europe. ORCID: 0000-0002-7803-3043 ;

Jarosław Wilczyński is head of the Department of Vertebrate Zoology of the Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals of the Polish Academy of Sciences. He graduated in archaeology at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, and received his PhD in archaeozoology at the Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences. His interests are two-pronged, including studying Upper Palaeolithic and Neolithic lithic inventories, as well as Pleistocene and Holocene faunal assemblages. He conducts research projects on the Gravettian and the Epigravettian of Central Europe. ORCID: 0000-0002-9786-0693 ;

Marta Sánchez de la Torre is currently a Beatriu de Pinós postdoctoral researcher at the Prehistoric Studies and Research Seminar (SERP) of the University of Barcelona. Her research has mainly focused on the analysis of lithic raw materials by Palaeolithic groups settled in the Pyrenean region by the use of traditional approaches as well as geochemical methods. She is currently directing archaeological seasons at several sites in NE Iberia and participates in different projects in France and Spain. ;

Xavier Mangado is a professor in prehistory at the University of Barcelona and researcher at the Prehistoric Studies and Research Seminar (SERP) of the University of Barcelona. He specialise in the analysis of lithic raw materials, mostly by using petrographic and micropalaeontological tools. His research is mainly focused on the study of Palaeolithic groups settled in NE Iberia and he has also participated in several international projects at Portugal, France and Jordan. ;

Josep Maria Fullola has been a professor in prehistory at the University of Barcelona since 1985. In 1986 he created the Prehistoric Studies and Research Seminar (SERP) of the University of Barcelona, a research group that promotes advanced research in prehistoric archaeology, being since its creation the main director. He has directed archaeological seasons in several Palaeolithic sites in NE Iberia, but he has also been involved in international projects in Baja California, France and Portugal.
Tres usurpadores godos: Tres estudios sobre la tiranía en el reino visigodo de Toledo by Rafael Barroso Cabrera, Jorge Morín de Pablos and Isabel Mª. Sánchez Ramos. Paperback; 203x276mm; 446 pages; 112 figures (colour throughout). Spanish text with English summaries. 138 2021. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789699593. £60.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789699609. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Tres usurpadores godos is a study of three famous usurpations of the Visigothic period. It first examines the nature of the uprising of Prince Hermenegild (579-585), the civil war and the complex political context of the time, as well as the important implications of the conflict. The second study deals with the rebellion of Duke Argimundo at the beginning of the reign of Recaredo and the consequences it had on the newly conquered Suebi kingdom. A prominent member of the Aula Regia and doge prouinciae, Argimundus started a rebellion in the province of Gallaecia that could have ruined the political endeavours of Leovigild and Recaredo. Finally, it analyses the figure of Duke Theudemirus, one of the great magnates of the kingdom of Toledo at the end of the 7th century, his actions within the complicated Visigothic political situation and the role he played in the transmission of power between Visigoths and Arabs after the fall of the kingdom of Toledo.

About the Authors
Rafael Barroso Cabrera (Madrid, 1963) holds a degree in Prehistory and Archaeology from the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. He is a specialist in studies on the Visigothic kingdom of Toledo, a period to which he has devoted much of his research work and numerous publications. ;

Jorge Morín de Pablos (Madrid, 1967) holds a PhD in Archaeology from the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid and is director of the Department of Archaeology, Palaeontology and Cultural Resources at AUDEMA. He has directed more than 300 archaeological excavations at different sites in Spain and abroad, with chronologies ranging from the Palaeolithic to contemporary times. ;

Isabel Sánchez Ramos (Córdoba, 1977) holds a PhD in Archaeology, specialising in the historical period of Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. Her main scientific interest has been the study of phenomena related to urban societies in transformation between the Roman period and the High Middle Ages in the western Mediterranean, the spaces and architectures of power linked to the elites, and the impact they had on the evolution of urban landscapes.

Spanish Description
Tres usurpadores godos es un estudio sobre tres famosas usurpaciones de época visigoda. Se analiza en primer lugar la naturaleza del levantamiento del príncipe Hermenegildo (579-585), la guerra civil y el complejo contexto político del momento, así como las importantes implicaciones que se derivaron del conflicto. El segundo estudio aborda la rebelión del duque Argimundo a comienzos del reinado de Recaredo y las consecuencias que ésta tuvo en el recién conquistado reino suevo. Destacado miembro del Aula Regia y dux prouinciae, Argimundus inició una rebelión en la provincia Gallaecia que pudo haber arruinado la obra política construida por Leovigildo y Recaredo. Por último, se analiza la figura del duque Theudemirus, uno de los grandes magnates del reino de Toledo de finales del siglo VII, su actuación dentro de la complicada situación política visigoda y el papel que desempeñó en la transmisión del poder entre visigodos y árabes a la caída del reino de Toledo.

Rafael Barroso Cabrera (Madrid, 1963) es Licenciado en Prehistoria y Arqueología por la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Es especialista en estudios sobre el reino visigodo de Toledo, periodo al que ha dedicado buena parte de su labor investigadora y numerosas publicaciones. ;

Jorge Morín de Pablos (Madrid, 1967) es Doctor en Arqueología por la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid y director del Departamento de Arqueología, Paleontología y Recursos Culturales de AUDEMA. Ha dirigido más de 300 excavaciones arqueológicas en diferentes yacimientos de España y el extranjero, con cronologías que van desde el Paleolítico hasta época contemporánea. ;

Isabel Sánchez Ramos (Córdoba, 1977) es doctora en Arqueología especialista en el periodo histórico de la Ant
Göytepe: Neolithic Excavations in the Middle Kura Valley, Azerbaijan edited by Yoshihiro Nishiaki and Farhad Guliyev. Hardback; 210x297mm; 384 pages; 285 figures, 37 tables (colour throughout). 708 2020. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789698787. £88.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789698794. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Göytepe: Neolithic Excavations in the Middle Kura Valley, Azerbaijan, publishes the first round of fieldwork and research (2008-2013) at this key site for understanding the emergence and development of food-producing communities in the South Caucasus. Situated close to the Fertile Crescent of Southwest Asia, where Neolithisation processes occurred earlier, research in the South Caucasus raises intriguing research questions, including issues of diffusion from the latter and interaction with ‘incoming’ Neolithic communities as well as the possibility of independent local Neolithisation processes. In order to address these issues in the South Caucasus, a joint Azerbaijan–Japan research programme was launched in 2008 to investigate Göytepe, one of the largest known Neolithic mounds in the South Caucasus. The results of the first phase of the project (2008-2013) presented here provide rich archaeological data from multi-disciplinary perspectives: chronology, architecture, technology, social organisation, and plant and animal exploitation, to name a few. This volume is the first to present these details in a single report of the South Caucasian Neolithic site using a high-resolution chronology based on dozens of radiocarbon dates.

About the Editors
Yoshihiro Nishiaki, who received his BA and MA from the University of Tokyo and PhD from University College London, is a professor of prehistoric archaeology at the University of Tokyo and Director of its University Museum. His research involves the prehistory of Southwest Asia and its neighbouring regions through fieldwork and archaeological analyses of material remains. He has directed a number of field campaigns at Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites in Syria, Iran, Azerbaijan, and Uzbekistan. The Neolithisation processes of the South Caucasus have been a major target of his research in the past few decades. ;

Farhad Guliyev, a graduate of the Baku State University of the Republic of Azerbaijan, received his PhD from the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS) and currently serves as Director of the Museum of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, ANAS. His major research interests lie in the socio-economic development of the South Caucasus from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age. His recent international field projects besides Göytepe include the Neolithic sites of Hacı Elamxanlıtepe, Menteshtepe and Kiciktepe, also in western Azerbaijan.
New Frontiers in Archaeology: Proceedings of the Cambridge Annual Student Archaeology Conference 2019 edited by Kyra Kaercher, Monique Arntz, Nancy Bomentre, Xosé L. Hermoso-Buxán, Kevin Kay, Sabrina Ki, Ruairidh Macleod, Helena Muñoz-Mojado, Lucy Timbrell and Izzy Wisher. Paperback; 203x276mm; 308 pages; illustrated throughout (83 pages of colour). Print RRP: £48.00. 127 2020. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789697940. £48.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789697957. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

This volume is the result of the Cambridge Annual Student Archaeology Conference (CASA), held at the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research from September 13–15, 2019. CASA developed out of the Annual Student Archaeology Conference, first held in 2013, which was formed by students at Cambridge, Oxford, Durham and York. In 2017, Cambridge became the home of the conference and the name was changed accordingly. The conference was developed to give students (from undergraduate to PhD candidates) in archaeology and related fields the chance to present their research to a broad audience.

The theme for the 2019 conference was New Frontiers in Archaeology and this volume presents papers from a wide range of topics such as new geographical areas of research, using museum collections and legacy data, new ways to teach archaeology and new scientific or theoretic paradigms. From hunting and gathering in the Neolithic to the return of artefacts to Turkey, the papers contained within show a great variety in both geography and chronology. Discussions revolve around access to data, the role of excavation in today’s archaeology, the role of local communities in archaeological interpretation and how we can ask new questions of old data. This volume presents 18 papers arranged in the six sessions with the two posters in their thematic sessions.
New Agendas in Remote Sensing and Landscape Archaeology in the Near East Studies in Honour of Tony J. Wilkinson edited by Dan Lawrence, Mark Altaweel and Graham Philip. Paperback; 205x290mm; 346 pages; 181 figures, 22 tables, 10 plates (46 pages of colour). 662 2020. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789695731. £50.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789695748. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

New Agendas in Remote Sensing and Landscape Archaeology in the Near East is a collection of papers produced in honour of Tony James Wilkinson, who was Professor of Archaeology at Durham University from 2006 until his death in 2014. Though commemorative in concept, the volume is an assemblage of new research representing emerging agendas and innovative methods in remote sensing. The intention is to explore the opportunities and challenges faced by researchers in the field today, and the tools, techniques, and theoretical approaches available to resolve them within the framework of landscape archaeology. The papers build on the traditional strengths of landscape archaeology, such as geoarchaeology and settlement pattern analysis, as well as integrating data sources to address major research questions, such as the ancient economy, urbanism, water management and the treatment of the dead. The authors demonstrate the importance of an interdisciplinary approach for understanding the impact of human activity on shaping the landscape and the effect that landscape has on sociocultural development.

About the Editors
Dr Dan Lawrence is an Associate Professor in the department of Archaeology at Durham University and director of the Archaeology Informatics Laboratory, a specialist hub for remote sensing and computational approaches to the archaeological record. He has directed landscape survey projects across the Middle East and Central Asia, and is currently working on the publication of survey work in Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan. ;

Mark Altaweel
is Reader in Near East Archaeology at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London. He has taught courses and conducted research on Near Eastern history and archaeology, using GIS, computational modelling, big data analytics, remote sensing methods, and socialecological theory. He has led many projects in the Near East while being also involved in various research projects on complex systems in other disciplines. ;

Graham Philip is Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology in the Department of Archaeology, Durham University. He has served as Editor of the journal Levant since 2008. He excavated the Chalcolithic / Early Bronze Age site of Tell esh-Shuna North in Jordan (1991-94) and currently directs a collaborative project with the American University of Beirut at the Neolithic and EBA site of Tell Koubba in North Lebanon.
Stone in Metal Ages Proceedings of the XVIII UISPP World Congress (4-9 June 2018, Paris, France) Volume 6, Session XXXIV-6 edited by Francesca Manclossi, Florine Marchand, Linda Boutoille and Sylvie Cousseran-Néré. Paperback; 205x290mm; 134 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (24 pages in colour). Papers in English and French. 659 2020. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789696677. £32.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789696684. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

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Session XXXIV-6 of the XVIII UISPP World Congress (4–9 June 2018, Paris, France): ‘Stone in Metal Ages’ was divided in two parts. The first, ‘Late stone talks: Lithic industries in Metal Ages’, was concerned with knapping. The papers dealt with lithic technology, use-wear analyses and the relation between the decline of stone and the development of metallurgy. The second, ‘Let there be rock and metal: l’outillage en pierre des métallurgistes préhistoriques de la mine à l’atelier’, was designed for papers focussing on stone tools used for metallurgy. This publication combines these two parts. Despite the fact that metal took the place of stone in many spheres, the analysis of lithic products created during the Metal Ages has seen progressive development. Objects and tools made of flint, chert and other stone materials remain important components of the archaeological record, and their study has offered new perspectives on ancient societies. Not only have many aspects of the everyday life of ancient people been better understood, but the socioeconomic and cultural systems associated with the production, circulation and use of stone tools have offered new information not available from other realms of material culture.

About the Editors
Francesca Manclossi is currently a post-doctoral fellow at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev and she is affiliated at the Centre de Recherche Français de Jérusalem. ;

Florine Marchand is part of an experimental archaeology team investigating the pressure techniques with the collaboration of Archéorient of Jalès (Casteljau-et-Berrias, France). ;

Linda Boutoille held a Marie Skłodowska-Curie Fellowship and subsequently a Royal Irish Academy Research Grant, based at Queen’s University Belfast. ;

Sylvie Cousseran-Néré is an archaeologist of the French National Archaeological Research Institute (Inrap).
Glazed Brick Decoration in the Ancient Near East edited by Anja Fügert and Helen Gries. Paperback; 205x290mm; 130 pages; 97 figures, 5 tables (61 colour pages). 645 2020. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789696059. £30.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789696066. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Glazed bricks applied as a new form of colourful and glossy architectural decor first started to appear in the early Iron Age on monumental buildings of the Ancient Near East. It surely impressed the spectators then as it does the museum visitors today. Glazed Brick Decoration in the Ancient Near East comprises the proceedings of a workshop held at the 11th International Congress of the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East (ICAANE) at Munich in April 2018, organised by the editors. Over the last decade excavations have supplied new evidence from glazed bricks that once decorated the facades of the Ancient Near East’s public buildings during the Iron Age (1000–539 BC) and especially significant progress has been achieved from revived work on glazed bricks excavated more than a century ago which today are kept in various museum collections worldwide. Since the latest summarising works on Ancient Near Eastern glazed architectural décors have been published several decades ago and in the meantime considerable insight into the subject has been gained, this volume aims to provide an updated overview of the development of glazed bricks and of the scientific research on the Iron Age glazes. Furthermore, it presents the on-going research on this topic and new insights into glazed bricks from Ashur, Nimrud, Khorsabad, and Babylon.

About the Editors
Anja Fügert received her master’s degree in Near Eastern Archaeology at the Freie Universität Berlin in 2005 with a dissertation on the Old Babylonian palace at Uruk. From 2005 to 2014 she was a staff member of the research project Tell Sheikh Hamad / Syria and in 2013 she defended her PhD on the Neo-Assyrian glyptics from this site. After working as a freelance illustrator in the Egyptian National Museum in Cairo she did a 2-year traineeship at the Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin. She also taught courses of Near Eastern Archaeology at the Freie Universität Berlin and at the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen. Since December 2017 she is the head of the editorial office of the Orient-Department of the German Archaeological Institute. Together with Helen Gries, she initiated and directs the project The Reconstruction of the Glazed Brick Facades from Ashur in the Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin (GlAssur).

Helen Gries obtained MA in Near Eastern Archaeology at Johannes Gutenberg-Universität of Mainz in 2010. In 2011 she started her PhD as a member of the Graduate School ‘Formen von Prestige in Kulturen des Altertums’ at Ludwig-Maximilians- Universität of Munich. In 2014 she completed her PhD at Munich with a dissertation on the Ashur temple at Ashur. She has undertaken fieldwork in Syria, Iran, Lebanon, and Jordan. In 2014 and 2015 she was postdoc researcher and lecturer at Institute of Near Eastern Archaeology at the University of Munich. Since 2015 she is researcher and curator for Mesopotamia at the Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin. Together with Anja Fügert, she directs the project The Reconstruction of the Glazed Brick Facades from Ashur in the Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin (GlAssur), which is funded by the German Research Foundation since 2018.
Carving Interactions: Rock Art in the Nomadic Landscape of the Black Desert, North-Eastern Jordan by Nathalie Østerled Brusgaard. Paperback; 205x290mm; xii+206 pages; 216 figures, 32 tables (129 colour pages). 577 2019. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789693119. £45.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789693126. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

The Safaitic rock art of the North Arabian basalt desert is a unique and understudied material, one of the few surviving traces of the elusive herding societies that inhabited this region in antiquity. Yet little is known about this rock art and its role in the desert societies. Why did these peoples make carvings in the desert and what was the significance of this cultural practice? What can the rock art tell us about the relationship between the nomads and their desert landscape? This book investigates these questions through a comprehensive study of over 4500 petroglyphs from the Jebel Qurma region of the Black Desert in north-eastern Jordan. It explores the content of the rock art, how it was produced and consumed by its makers and audience, and its relationship with the landscape. This is the first-ever systematic study of the Safaitic petroglyphs from the Black Desert and it is unique for the study of Arabian rock art. It demonstrates the value of a material approach to rock art and the unique insights that rock art can provide into the relationship between nomadic herders and the wild and domestic landscape.

About the Author
Nathalie Østerled Brusgaard (PhD, Leiden University) is an archaeologist specialising in rock art studies and social zooarchaeology. Nathalie has worked on excavations in the Netherlands and Germany and on rock art surveys in Jordan and the USA.
Mobile Peoples – Permanent Places: Nomadic Landscapes and Stone Architecture from the Hellenistic to Early Islamic Periods in North-Eastern Jordan by Harmen Huigens. Paperback; 203x276mm; 270 pages; 183 figures, 25 tables (152 pages in colour). (Print £65.00). 96 2019. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789693133. £65.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789693140. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Mobile Peoples – Permanent Places explores the relationship between nomadic communities who resided in the Black Desert of north-eastern Jordan between c. 300 BC and 900 AD and the landscapes they inhabited and extensively modified. Although these communities were highly mobile, moving through the desert following seasonal variation in natural resources, they significantly invested in the landscapes they frequented by erecting highly durable stone architecture, and by carving rock art and inscriptions. Although these inscriptions, known as Safaitic, are relatively well studied, the archaeological remains had received little attention until recently.

This book focuses on the architectural features, including enclosures and elaborate burial cairns, that were created in the landscape some 2000 years ago and which were used and revisited on multiple occasions. It explores how nomadic communities modified these landscapes by presenting new data from remote sensing, field surveys, and excavations. To better understand the purpose of these modifications and how this changed through time, the landscape is further analysed on various temporal and geographic scales.

This book particularly deals with the archaeological landscapes of the Jebel Qurma region of north-eastern Jordan. It is part of the Landscapes of Survival project, a research programme based at Leiden University that has brought together both archaeologists and epigraphers to work on this fascinating region.

About the Author
Harmen Huigens is a landscape archaeologist who investigates processes of modifying and encountering human living space in the ancient Near East. He received his doctorate from the Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University (2018).
Why Did Ancient States Collapse? The Dysfunctional State by Malcolm Levitt. Paperback; 203x276mm;56 pages; 4 tables, 1 diagram (black & white throughout). 93 2019. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789693027. £18.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789693034. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Ancient states were rooted in agriculture, sedentism and population growth. They were fragile and prone to collapse, but there is no consensus on the causes or meaning of collapse, and there is an ongoing debate about the importance, nature and even existence of state-wide collapse.

Explanations of collapse in terms of the competing mono-causal factors are found inferior to those incorporating dynamic, interactive systems. It is proposed that collapse should be explained as failure to fulfil the ancient state’s core functions: assurance of food supplies, defence against external attack, maintenance of internal peace, imposition of its will throughout its territory, enforcement of state-wide laws, and promotion of an ideology to legitimise the political and social status quo.

To fulfil these functions certain necessary conditions must be met. The legitimacy of the political and social status quo, including the distribution of political power and wealth, needs to be accepted; the state should be able to extract sufficient resources to fulfil its functions such as defence; it must be able to enforce its decisions; the ruling elite should share a common purpose and actions; the society needs to reflect a shared spirit (asibaya) and purpose across elites and commoners who believe it is worthy of defence.

Weaknesses and failure to meet any condition can interact to exacerbate the situation: maladministration, corruption and elite preoccupation with self-aggrandisement can induce fiscal weakness, reduced military budgets and further invasion; it can induce neglect of key infrastructures (especially water management). Inequality, a commonly neglected factor despite ancient texts, can erode asibaya and legitimacy and alienate commoners from the defence of the state.

These themes are explored in relation to the Egyptian Old Kingdom, Mycenae, the Western Roman Empire (WRE), and the Maya. They all exhibit, to varying degrees, weaknesses in meeting the above conditions necessary for stability.

About the Author
Malcolm Levitt held posts as lecturer in economics at Liverpool and Hallsworth Fellow at Manchester University (where his interest in state collapse originated) before joining HM Treasury where he became Senior Economic Adviser. He then moved to the OECD and later served as Chef de Division in the European Commission.

Since completing his MA in Archaeology at the UCL Institute of Archaeology in 2018 he has concentrated on deepening the theoretical basis of his dissertation on why ancient states collapsed.
Ceramics in Transition: Production and Exchange of Late Byzantine-Early Islamic Pottery in Southern Transjordan and the Negev by Elisabeth Holmqvist. Paperback; 205x290mm; vi+196 pages; 61 figures, 4 tables + illustrated appendices (25 pages in colour). (Print RRP £35.00). 552 2019. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789692242. £35.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789692259. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Ceramics in Transition focuses on the utilitarian ceramic traditions during the socio-political transition from the late Byzantine into the early Islamic Umayyad and ‘Abbasid periods, c. 6th–9th centuries CE in southern Transjordan and the Negev. These regions belonged to the Byzantine province of Palaestina Tertia, before Islamic administrative reorganisation in the mid-7th century. Cooking ware and ceramic containers were investigated from five archaeological sites representing different socio-economic contexts, the Jabal Harûn monastery, the village of Khirbet edh-Dharih, the port city of ‘Aqaba/Aila, the town of Elusa in the Negev, and the suburban farmstead of Abu Matar. The ceramics were typo-chronologically categorised and subjected to geochemical and micro-structural characterisation via X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (ED-XRF) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) to geochemically ‘fingerprint’ the sampled ceramics and to identify production clusters, manufacturing techniques, ceramic distribution patterns, and material links between rural-urban communities as well as religious-secular communities. The ceramic data demonstrate economic wealth continuing into the early Islamic periods in the southern regions, ceramic exchange systems, specialized manufacture and inter-regional, long-distance ceramic transport. The potters who operated in the southern areas in the formative stages of the Islamic period reformulated their craft to follow new influences diffusing from the Islamic centres in the north.

About the Author
ELISABETH HOLMQVIST holds a PhD (2010) in Archaeological Science from the Institute of Archaeology, University College London, and MA and BA degrees in Archaeology from the University of Helsinki. She works as a post-doctoral researcher at the Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, University of Helsinki, Finland. Her research interests are broadly in archaeological science, ancient craft technologies and identifying mobility of objects and people in archaeological data. She carries out archaeological fieldwork in Finland, Israel and Jordan.
Glass and Glass Production in the Near East during the Iron Age Evidence from objects, texts and chemical analysis by Katharina Schmidt. Paperback; viii+316 pages; 85 figures, 28 tables, 68 plates (approx. 92 pages in colour). 520 2019. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789691542. £50.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789691559. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Glass and Glass Production in the Near East during the Iron Age: Evidence from objects, texts and chemical analysis examines the history of glass in Iron Age Mesopotamia and neighbouring regions (1000–539 BCE). This is the first monograph to cover this region and period comprehensively and in detail and thus fills a significant gap in glass research. It focusses on identification of the different types of glass objects and their respective manufacturing techniques from the the Iron Age period. Both glass as material and individual glass objects are investigated to answer questions such as as how raw glass (primary production) and glass objects (secondary production) were manufactured, how both these industries were organised, and how widespread glass objects were in Mesopotamian society in the Iron Age period. Such a comprehensive picture of glass and its production in the Iron Age can only be achieved by setting archaeological data in relation to cuneiform texts, archaeometric analyses and experimental-archaeological investigations. With regard to the different disciplines incorporated into this study, an attempt was made to view them together and to establish connections between these areas.

About the Author
Katharina Schmidt obtained MA in Near Eastern Archaeology at Ludwig-Maximilians- Universität of Munich in 2012, with a dissertation on glazed Neo-Assyrian vessels from Upper Mesopotamia. In 2013 she started her PhD as a member of the Graduate School ‘Distant Worlds’ at the same university. As a visiting researcher, she studied at University College, London, and acquired additional knowledge in the use of chemical analyses – in particular with regard to glass. In 2016 she completed her PhD at Munich with a dissertation on glass and glassmaking in the Iron Age period. As an archaeologist she worked on excavations in Syria (Tell Halaf) and Turkey (Sirkeli Höyük, Dülük Baba Tepesi). Since 2016 she has been director of the German Protestant Institute of Archaeology in Amman, Jordan, where she carries out various research and excavation projects, above all the excavations at Tall Zirā´a.

Reviews
'Katharina Schmidt has written a much-needed volume on Iron Age glass from the Near East... this is a major contribution to the study of Iron Age glass that will be of great help to students of ancient technologies and glass for years to come.' - Julian Henderson, Department of Classics and Archaeology, University of Nottingham (Antiquity, December 2019)
Taymāʾ I: Archaeological Exploration, Palaeoenvironment, Cultural Contacts edited by Arnulf Hausleiter, Ricardo Eichmann, Muhammad al-Najem. Hardback; 210x297mm; xii+268 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (66 plates in colour). 499 2018 Taymāʾ: Multidisciplinary Series on the Results of the Saudi-German Archaeological Project 1. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789690439. £55.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789690446. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Archaeological investigations in the north-western part of the Arabian Peninsula has increased during the last 15 years. One of the major sites in the region is the ancient oasis of Taymāʾ, known as a commercial hub on the so-called Incense Road connecting South Arabia with the Eastern Mediterranean. In the context of this new research a multidisciplinary project by the Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage (SCTH) and the Orient Department of the German Archaeological Institute (DAI) has been investigating the archaeology and ancient environment of Taymāʾ since 2004. A major aim of this project was the development of new perspectives of the site and the region, characterised by elaborating the local socio-cultural and economic contexts. So far, Taymāʾ has been known mainly through exogenous sources.

The present volume is the first of the publication series of the Saudi-German archaeological project and focuses on three fundamental aspects of research at Taymāʾ: the current archaeological exploration of the oasis is contextualised with previous and ongoing research within the region, while at the same time offering a first overview of the settlement history of the site, which may have started as early as more than 6000 years ago. New information on the palaeoenvironment has been provided by multiproxy- analysis of sediments from a palaeolake immediately north of the settlement. The results indicate an Early Holocene humid period in the region that is shorter than the so-called African Humid Period. The abrupt aridification at around 8 ka BP, known from other regions in the Near East, is also attested in north-western Arabia. The reconstruction of the past vegetation of the site and its surroundings demonstrates that oasis cultivation at Taymāʾ started during the 5th millennium BCE with grapes and figs, rather than with the date palm. According to hydrological investigations on water resources, groundwater aquifers provided the main source of local water supply. These were exploited through wells, some of which have been identified in the area of the ancient oasis. Finally, since the time of early travellers to Northwest Arabia evidence of cultural contacts has been observed in the records from the site, which had been occupied by the last Babylonian king, Nabonidus (556–539 BCE) for ten years. A historical-archaeological essay on Egypt and Arabia as well as a study on the ambiguous relationship between Assyria and Arabia – characterised by conflict and commerce – shed new light on the foreign relations of ancient Taymāʾ.

About the Editors
ARNULF HAUSLEITER is researcher at the DAI’s Orient Department for the Taymāʾ project, funded by the German Research foundation (DFG). He has been field director of the excavations at Taymāʾ since 2004 and has co-directed the project with Ricardo Eichmann.

RICARDO EICHMANN is director of the Orient Department at the German Archaeological Institute in Berlin. He is the head of the German component of the Taymāʾ project and has co-directed it with Arnulf Hausleiter.

MUHAMMAD AL-NAJEM is head of the Antiquities Office of the Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage (SCTH) and director of the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography at Taymāʾ, Province of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.

Reviews
'In sum, all scholars and students of Arabia’s past will want to acquire this volume. It represents a first, fundamental, and substantial stepping-stone towards a comprehensive understanding of the long history and development of the Taymā᾿ Oasis.'—Lloyd Weeks, Bibliotheca Orientalis LXXVIII 1/2
Palmyra, Pastoral Nomads, and City-State Kings in the Old Babylonian Period: Interaction in the Semi-Arid Syrian Landscape by Kristina J. Hesse. Pages 1-9 from Palmyrena: City, Hinterland and Caravan Trade between Orient and Occident Jørgen Christian Meyer, Eivind Heldaas Seland and Nils Anfinset.Download Full PDF  

Abstract: The aim of the paper is to inhabit the semi-arid landscape of Palmyrena in the Old Babylonian period, by describing some of the surveyed archaeological remains and relate this to inhabit and events in this area described in ancient documents. Some examples from the area of Jebel Bishri will also be discussed. Besides landscape surveys and climate studies, the research draws upon several ancient tablets describing the interaction between pastoral nomads and urban societies originating from the Mari Archives during the reign of Zimri-Lim and Yasmah-Addu. The study shows that pastoral nomadic tribes, called the Suteans, inhabited these mountainous areas, which in this period might have been wetter than today and sparsely covered with bushy woodland. These people were engaged in escorting caravans through the desert, but they also had a reputation as raiders, hence the Jebel Bishri plateau was avoided by travellers. Palmyra, was an important stop over for caravans and an advanced station guarding the desert route between Mari and Qatna, and seems to have been located within the territory of the latter. The settled and nomadic people of Palmyra were engaged as messengers as well as in pastoralism, escorting, guarding, and with the provisioning of caravans.
Naturvorstellungen im Altertum Schilderungen und Darstellungen von Natur im Alten Orient und in der griechischen Antike edited by Florian Schimpf, Dominik Berrens, Katharina Hillenbrand, Tim Brandes and Carrie Schidlo. ii+285 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (56 colour plates). German text. 411 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784918255. £32.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784918262. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Everyone who investigates pre-modern concepts of nature cannot avoid a critical reflection on the ancient understandings of it. Here, “nature” is understood in the sense of a seemingly untouched space, largely independent of human culture. While this concept of “nature” is prevalent in modern times, the reconstruction of ancient ideas is difficult in that concepts of nature, if at all present, emphasize other aspects. For example, the Greek term φύσις in pre-Hellenistic times defines the nature of a thing rather than an untouched environment. A word for “nature” in this sense has not been handed down to us in the remaining texts of the Ancient Near East and Classical Antiquity. Nevertheless, such concepts can certainly be reconstructed from descriptions of nature to be found in literature and the representations of natural elements in art.

The present volume aims at identifying these concepts of nature in texts as well as in archaeological remains of the Ancient Near Eastern and the Greek culture from the Archaic to the Hellenistic period. Contributions from the fields of archaeology and philology are juxtaposed for each time period in chronological order. This arrangement provides a good overview of the concepts of nature prevailing throughout different period and cultures.

GERMAN DESCRIPTION: Der Begriff „Natur“ wird in modernen, mitteleuropäischen Gesellschaften meist im Sinne eines vermeintlich unberührten Raumes verstanden, der weitgehend unbeeinflusst von menschlicher Kultur ist. Für vormoderne Kulturen lassen sich solche Vorstellungen bzw. Konzepte sehr viel schwieriger nachweisen, da beispielsweise ein Wort für „Natur“ mit der eben genannten Bedeutung in den erhaltenen Texten des Alten Orients und der griechischen Antike so nicht überliefert zu sein scheint. Gleichwohl werden durchaus Naturelemente in der antiken Literatur, der Flächenkunst sowie in antiken Monumenten beschrieben bzw. abgebildet sowie als integrative Bestandteile genutzt und funktionalisiert. Daraus lassen sich Konzepte von „Natur“ herausarbeiten und rekonstruieren. Der vorliegende Band möchte solche „Naturkonzepte“ in Texten, Artefakten und Denkmälern des Alten Orients und des griechischen Kulturraumes von der Archaik bis in den Hellenismus identifizieren und einen Überblick über die jeweils in einem bestimmten Zeit- und Kulturraum vorherrschenden Vorstellungen sowie deren diachrone Entwicklung geben.

About the Editors
FLORIAN SCHIMPF studied Classical Archaeology and History at the universities of Frankfurt and Istanbul, whilst gaining practical experiences by participating in excavations in Priene (Turkey), Portugal and on the Balkans. In 2013 he joined the Research Training Group “Early Concepts of Man and Nature” at the University of Mainz with a project on natural sanctuaries in ancient Greece and Asia Minor. His research interests lie in the fields of religious history, Greek cult practices and metrology.

DOMINIK BERRENS studied Classical Philology and Biology at the University of Freiburg. From 2013-2017 he was part of the Research Training Group “Early Concepts of Man and Nature” at the University of Mainz, where he received his doctorate with a dissertation on social insects in antiquity in 2016. Since October 2017 he has been a postdoctoral researcher working on the project “NOSCEMUS – Nova Scientia: Early Modern Science and Latin” funded by the European Research Council at the University of Innsbruck. His research interests lie in pre-modern scientific texts and ancient drama.

KATHARINA HILLENBRAND studied Classical Philology and German Studies at the Universities of Würzburg and Frankfurt. In 2014 she joined the Research Training Group “Early Concepts of Man and Nature” at the University of Mainz with a project on concepts of volcanic phenomena in Roman antiquity. Currently she is working at the department of Classical Philology at the University o
Archaeological Explorations in Syria 2000-2011 Proceedings of ISCACH-Beirut 2015 edited by Jeanine Abdul Massih and Shinichi Nishiyama in collaboration with Hanan Charaf and Ahmad Deb. Paperback; 205x290mm; iv+452 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (124 colour plates). (Print RRP £65.00). 452 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784919474. £65.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784919481. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Syria has been a major crossroads of civilizations in the ancient Near East since the dawn of human kind. Until the current crisis began in 2011, Syria was one of the foremost pioneers in the investigation of past human knowledge, diversity, and identity. However, due to the ongoing war, archaeological excavations came to an abrupt halt. Since then, there have been countless alarming reports of damage or destruction inflicted on archaeological, historical, and museum sites.

The International Syrian Congress on Archaeology and Cultural Heritage (ISCACH), held December 3-5, 2015 in Beirut, Lebanon, was designed to bring together international scholars who have directed or participated in archaeological expeditions in Syria, and colleagues from Syria. By doing so, not only could the results of years of archaeological investigations and cultural heritage management in Syria be shared and discussed, but also a spirit of friendship and collaboration could be fostered and strengthened during this turbulent period.

The Congress focussed on the scientific aspects of each explored site and region allowing researchers to examine in detail each heritage site, its characteristics and identity. Archaeological Explorations in Syria 2000-2011: Proceedings of ISCACH-Beirut 2015 consists of two parts. The first part presents the results of archaeological investigations conducted between 2000 and 2010. The second part comprises abstracts of papers and posters presented during the Congress. It is hoped that this book will represent an important contribution to the scientific dialogue between international and Syrian scholars, and will appeal to the general public interested in the culture and history of Syria.

About the Editors
JEANINE ABDUL MASSIH is professor in art and archaeology at the Lebanese University. She specializes in Hellenistic and Roman settlements, town planning, and architecture. She co-directed the excavations of Cyrrhus (Aleppo, Syria) on behalf of the Lebanese University and the DGAMS and coordinated many field and research projects in Syria and Lebanon. Since 2014, she has been in charge of the excavations and management of the Quarries of Baalbek (Lebanon) and of a survey project on the Southern Beqaa (Lebanon).

SHINICHI NISHIYAMA is associate professor at Chubu University, Japan. He specializes in the Iron Age culture of the ancient Near East, especially in the northern Levant. He has participated in various archaeological projects in the Near East and Central Asia including Syria, Turkey, Iran, Egypt, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan. He was also involved in the UNESCO-led cultural heritage projects in Afghanistan and Tajikistan. He currently co-directs archaeological projects in Iraqi Kurdistan (Yasin Tepe) and in Lebanon (Southern Beqaa).

HANAN CHARAF is assistant professor in art and archaeology at the Lebanese University. She specializes in Near Eastern history and archaeology during the Bronze and Iron Ages in the central Levant. Her research interests include Bronze Age ceramic production and distribution, Bronze Age Cypriot pottery imported to Lebanon, supra and intraregional trade (exchange commodities and routes) in the Levant during the Bronze Age, and cultural characteristics of the transitional period Late Bronze Age-Iron Age in the central Levant.

AHMAD DEB holds a PhD in archaeology and is currently Head of the Department of the Historical Buildings and Archaeological Documentation at the Directorate General of Antiquities of Syria. He directed the Syrian excavations of Tell Nahr El-Arab (Tell Al-Shamiyeh) between 2011 and 2018. He specializes in Bronze Age settlements and burials in the Near East. Today, he dedicates his time to saving and documenting Syrian endangered cultural heritage.
Halaf Settlement in the Iraqi Kurdistan: the Shahrizor Survey Project Taken from The Archaeology of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq and Adjacent Regions by Olivier Nieuwenhuyse, Takahiro Odaka and Simone Mühl. Pages 257-266.Download Full PDF  

The archaeology of the Halaf period has seen a very significant increase over the past decades. This recent work almost exclusively focussed on Northern Syria and Southeastern Turkey, or Upper Mesopotamia (Akkermans and Schwartz 2003; Nieuwenhuyse et al. 2013). As scholarship returns to Iraqi Kurdistan, prehistorians bring implicit expectations and assumptions that are shaped to a large extent by the latest work in Upper Mesopotamia. At the same time, the various new projects are taking up the challenge of adapting the existing models to local expressions of the Halaf cultural idiom (Altaweel et al. 2012; Bonacossi and Iamoni 2015; Gavagnin et al. (forthcoming); Nieuwenhuyse et al. 2016; Saber et al. 2014; Tsuneki et al. 2015; Ur et al. 2013). For the Halaf period, it is necessary to develop a fine-tuned chronological system that is sensitive to local internal sub-divisions in order to assess the significance of fluctuating site densities through time. The coarsegrained chronological framework currently available only permits a generalized slicing-up of later prehistory into ‘Pre-Halaf’, ‘Halaf’ and ‘Ubaid’. Such broad chronological boundaries may well turn out to be less significant if these long periods can be split into more nuanced images of change and continuity. The ultimate aim is to develop local frameworks based on explicitly described parameters so as to facilitate inter-regional comparisons (Ball et al. 1989; Dittmann 1992; Ur 2010, 214-5; Wilkinson and Tucker 1995). Click on the PDF to read the full paper online, or download to your device. The full volume is available in paperback here.
Palmyra, 30 Years of Syro-German/Austrian Archaeological Research (Homs) Taken from A History of Syria in One Hundred Sites by Andreas Schmidt-Colinet, Khaled al-As‘ad and Waleed al-As‘ad. Pages 339-348.Download Full PDF  

The temple- or house-like tomb no. 36 is situated in the centre of so-called ‘Valley of the Tombs’. With about 18m length from edge to edge and about 300 graves (loculi), it is the largest representative of this palace-like type of tombs at Palmyra. The architectural decoration of the building allows a dating to about 210 to 230 AD. Furthermore the tomb can be attributed probably to the family of the famous Iulius Septimius Aurelius Vorodes. The documentation of the more than 700 fallen blocks of the ruin enables us to draw an exact reconstruction of the building. The architecture documents a fusion of different traditions as well as the grandiose will of the buildings commissioner: The palace-like facade of the entrance contrasts with the square, two-storey and uncovered peristyle courtyard in the centre of the structure. Design and metrology of the building reveal at every point Roman principles of design, brought into line with oriental taste. The themes and the stylistic evidence of the architectural sculpture prove close relations with foreign sarcophagi workshops on the Syrian coast and their connections to Roman art: Dionysos-Baalshamin sitting in the vineyards, nereids and erotes riding on dolphins, seamonsters holding a shell between them, victories,winged Medusas, tragic masks. On the other hand, the exceptionally rich architectural decoration of highest quality was worked out by local workshops and enables us to reconstruct pattern books which partly can be traced back to native textile patterns. Click on the PDF to read the full paper online, or download to your device. The full volume is available in paperback here.
Tell el-Kerkh (Idlib) Taken from A History of Syria in One Hundred Sites by Akira Tsuneki. Pages 61-64.Download Full PDF  

Tell el-Kerkh is a large tell-complex located in the south of the Rouj Basin, Idlib province. It was occupied for long periods from the Neolithic to the Byzantine, however we concentrated our excavations on the Neolithic period. It is the oldest Neolithic settlement in northwest Syria, dating back to the middle of the 9th millennium BC. Therefore, the site provided us with data on how farming villages appeared in this region. Based on the excavated plant remains and animal bones, the subsistence of the people who first settled at Tell el-Kerkh seemed to follow the path from hunter-gatherers to farmer-herders. Click on the PDF to read the full paper online, or download to your device. The full volume is available in paperback here.
Structured Deposition of Animal Remains in the Fertile Crescent during the Bronze Age by José Luis Ramos Soldado. vi+58 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. Access Archaeology . Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784912727. £20.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784912697. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Although most of the animal remains recorded throughout the archaeological excavations consist usually of large assemblages of discarded and fragmented bones, it is possible to yield articulated animal skeletons in some cases. Most of them have been usually picked up from sacred and/or funerary contexts, but not all of them might fit necessarily in ritual and symbolic interpretations, and not all of the structured deposit of animal remains may be explained due to anthropic factors. In addition, zooarchaeology has traditionally focused on animal domestication, husbandry and economy, and species identification above all, shutting out further discussion about these type of findings. Moreover, the limited condition of the data is also another issue to bear in mind. Thus, the aim of this paper has been to draw up a literature review of the structured deposits of animal remains during the third and second millennia BC in the Ancient Near East for its subsequent classification and detailed interpretation. In this survey it has been attested that not only most of the articulated animal remains have been found in ritual and/or funerary contexts but also that all species recorded– but some exceptions–are domestic. Hence, I argue in this paper that there is a broad religious attitude towards the main domesticated animals of human economy in the Ancient Near East, based on the closeness of these animals to the human sphere. Therefore, it seems that domesticated animals were powerful constituents in the cultural landscape of these regions, never simply resources.

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‘Metal makes the wheel go round’: the development and diffusion of studded-tread wheels in the Ancient Near East and the Old World Chapter 18 from ΑΘΥΡΜΑΤΑ: Critical Essays on the Archaeology of the Eastern Mediterranean in Honour of E. Susan Sherratt by Simone Mühl. Pages 159-176.Download Full PDF  

As emphasized by the image on the cover of Stuart Piggott’s book Ancient Europe (1965), the wheel is, perhaps, one of humanity’s greatest inventions. The ingenuity and simplicity of its idea and the forms we know today are the result of a long process that involved several stages of construction, testing and cumulative improvement. Developments in wheel technology were, of course, related to the emergence of different categories of vehicles – including different forms of carts, wagons, or chariots – each representing a response to changing needs in agriculture, elite representation and warfare. One of these modifications was the ‘studded-tread wheel’ and this will form the focus of this paper.

This paper is taken from ΑΘΥΡΜΑΤΑ: Critical Essays on the Archaeology of the Eastern Mediterranean in Honour of E. Susan Sherratt edited by Yannis Galanakis, Toby Wilkinson and John Bennet, Archaeopress 2014. Click on the PDF to read the full paper online, or download to your device. The full volume is available in paperback here.
The Aegean and Cyprus Chapter 15 from World Archaeology at the Pitt Rivers Museum by Yannis Galanakis and Dan Hicks. 312-335.Download Full PDF  

The Pitt Rivers Museum (PRM) holds c. 480 objects from the Aegean (Greek mainland, Crete and the Cyclades) and c. 292 objects from Cyprus that are currently defined as archaeological. This chapter provides an overview of this material, and also considers the 25 later prehistoric archaeological objects from Turkey that are held in the Museum (Figure 15.1). The objects range chronologically from the later prehistoric (Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age) to the medieval period. Falling outside of the geographical scope of this chapter, elsewhere this volume considers Classical Greek and Roman material from Egypt (Chapter 7) and from the Levant (Chapter 21), Neolithic and Bronze Age material from Italy (Chapter 14), and Iron Age (including Classical Greek) material from Italy (Chapter 16). Click on the PDF to read the full paper online, or download to your device. The full volume is available in paperback here.
The Levant: Palestine, Israel and Jordan Chapter 22 from World Archaeology at the Pitt Rivers Museum by Bill Finlayson. 471-481.Download Full PDF  

The Pitt Rivers Museum (PRM) has over time acquired a number of flint collections from the Israel, Jordan, and the Occupied Palestinian Territories (Figure 22.1). Together they number some 4,986 artefacts, and notably includes material from important excavations at sites such as Mount Carmel and Shuqba cave: sites that helped establish the prehistoric culture history sequences in the Levant. The bulk of the collection was received from fieldwork conducted during the British Mandate in Palestine – either directly at the time or indirectly from the purchase of material from the Ipswich Museum in 19661 – and includes material from Turville-Petre and Dorothy Garrod. This period of fieldwork represented not only the opening up of early prehistory, but the most active period of British archaeological involvement in the region (Gibson 1999). The collection is thus a product of a distinctive moment in the history of the region. Click on the PDF to read the full paper online, or download to your device. The full volume is available in paperback here.
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