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Objects of the Past in the Past: Investigating the Significance of Earlier Artefacts in Later Contexts edited by Matthew G. Knight, Dot Boughton and Rachel E. Wilkinson. Paperback; 203x276mm; 77 figures, 11 tables (43 pages in colour). 89 2019. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789692488. £40.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789692495. Book contents pageDownload

How did past communities view, understand and communicate their pasts? And how can we, as archaeologists, understand this? In recent years these questions have been approached through studies of the extended occupation and use of landscapes, monuments and artefacts to explore concepts of time and memory. But what of objects that were already old in the past? Interpretations for these items have ranged from the discard of scrap to objects of veneration. Evidence from a range of periods would suggest objects of the past were an important part of many later societies that encountered them, either as heirlooms with remembered histories or rediscovered curiosities from a more distant past.

For the first time, this volume brings together a range of case studies in which objects of the past were encountered and reappropriated. It follows a conference session at the Theoretical Archaeological Group in Cardiff 2017, in which historians, archaeologists, heritage professionals and commercial archaeologists gathered to discuss this topic on a broad (pre)historical scale, highlighting similarities and contrast in depositional practices and reactions to relics of the past in different periods. Through case studies spanning the Bronze Age through to the 18th century AD, this volume presents new research demonstrating that the reappropriation of these already old objects was not anomalous, but instead represents a practice that recurs throughout (pre)history.

About the Editors
Matthew G. Knight is the curator of the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age collections at National Museums Scotland and Chair of the Later Prehistoric Finds Group. He specialises in the production, use and deposition of Bronze Age metalwork and completed his PhD on the deliberate destruction of metalwork in south-west England in 2018. He continues to be fascinated by destructive practices across Europe and is currently preparing a monograph on the subject. Matt’s MA thesis concerned out-of-time Bronze Age metalwork and he is frequently distracted by the relationship people in the past held with their own pasts and their treatment of already old material culture in the Bronze Age, or indeed any other time period.

Dot Boughton originates from Germany and is a prehistoric metalwork specialist who now works as a freelancer and translator in Cumbria. Dot did her undergraduate degree at the Freie Universität Berlin and moved to England in 1999, where she completed an MSt (2000) and MPhil (2001) in Anglo-Saxon Archaeology at the University of Oxford. In 2015 she completed her PhD dissertation on Early Iron Age socketed axes in Britain at the University of Central Lancashire. Dot was the Portable Antiquities Scheme’s Finds Liaison Officer for Lancashire and Cumbria from 2005–2017 and the Curator of Archaeology for Lancashire Museums 2017–2018. She worked for Oxford Archaeology (North) as their Finds, Archives and Environmental Officer from 2018–2019. Dot is now a freelance small finds specialist, writing metalwork reports for units and museums. She also translates historical German documents into English and vice versa.

Rachel E. Wilkinson is an archaeologist and numismatist and her AHRC-funded PhD examined the Iron Age metalwork object hoards from Britain (800 BC – AD 100), creating a national database for Iron Age object hoards which examined their contents, regional distribution and interaction with coin hoards. Previous positions during her PhD include Documentation Assistant and Project Curator: Romano-British collections at the British Museum, she currently freelances as a small finds specialist, editor and historical consultant.
Hasanlu, the Southern Caucasus and Early Urartu by Megan Cifarelli. Pages 144-156 from Over the Mountains and Far Away: Studies in Near Eastern history and archaeology presented to Mirjo Salvini on the occasion of his 80th birthday edited by Pavel S. Avetisyan, Roberto Dan and Yervand H. Grekyan.Download

Abstract: The past decades witnessed an increasing recognition of the complexity of Hasanlu’s place in the Iron Age world that it shared with Assyria, due to research in the highlands to the north of Hasanlu and the proliferation of studies about the kingdom of Urartu. This paper explores evidence, ‘circumstantial’ and archaeological, for interaction between Hasanlu during Period IVb (1050-800 BC) and the incipient Urartian state. There is little question that during the latter half of Period IVb at Hasanlu, the entity that would become the kingdom of Urartu was coalescing in eastern Anatolia and northwestern Iran. The material culture of Hasanlu Period IVb provides hints of interaction between Hasanlu and the larger southern Caucasus region, and between Hasanlu and Urartu. The impact of this cultural contact is bilateral, although it is challenging to trace the steps by which the material culture of northwestern Iran contributed to the development of that in Urartu. This paper argues that material connections between Urartu and Hasanlu, the objects displayed on its citadel and the bodies of its citizens, in the rich and diverse collections safeguarded in storerooms and presumably taken as spoils by its destroyers, indicate the debt Urartu owed to northwest Iran.

Keywords: Hasanlu, Urartu, Iron Age, South Caucasus, trident, bident, lion pin
Le classi ceramiche della “tradizione mista” a Kos nel Tardo Bronzo IA by Salvatore Vitale. Paperback; 203x276mm; 232 pages; 24 tables, 13 colour plates, 38 black & white line drawings, 24 black & white plates. Italian text with English abstract. 51 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784918859. £38.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784918866. Book contents pageDownload

This volume focuses on the pottery classes of the ‘Entangled Tradition’, recovered at the settlement of the ‘Serraglio’ on Kos during the early Late Bronze Age period. The results reveal new information on the chronology, typology, and decoration of Koan Painted Fine (PF) and Painted Medium-Coarse to Coarse (PMC-C) ceramics. Moreover, the analysis of manufacturing processes and consumption patterns contributes to a better comprehension of the socio-cultural and political context in which Koan entangled classes were produced.

The data presented in this volume indicate that PF and PMC-C ceramics represent a unique case of fully entangled classes in the Aegean, which merge features of the Koan ‘Local Tradition’ with characteristics of the Minoan potting tradition into a new technological and stylistic language. Contacts between these different cultures are explained based on the theoretical model provided by ‘human mobility’. The specific Koan cultural synthesis was endorsed and promoted by the local elites of the ‘Serraglio’, who aimed to participate in the ‘new environment’ determined by the economic and cultural expansion of Neopalatial Crete.

In this respect, the manufacture of Koan entangled classes served a dual role. On the one hand, using transport containers made in the PMC-C class, Koan products were exported and exchanged throughout the Aegean. In addition, the finer vessels of the Koan ‘Entangled Tradition’ were utilized for promoting Minoan-type social practices at the ‘Serraglio’. Through these practices, Koan elites reshaped their identity and portrayed an image of higher status within the local social arena.

About the Author
Dr SALVATORE VITALE completed his MA in Classical Literature and PhD in Classical Archaeology at the University of Pisa in 2001 and 2007. After his PhD, Dr Vitale held post-doctoral and research fellowships at the Universities of Calabria, Cincinnati, and Pisa and at the Italian Archaeological School at Athens.

Dr Vitale has taught Aegean Archaeology at the University of Milan and the Italian Archaeological School at Athens, as well as Greek and Roman Archaeology at the University of Pisa. At Pisa, he has also served as one of the editors of the journal ΑΓΩΓΗ.

Since 2009, Dr Vitale has been the director of the ‘Serraglio, Eleona, and Langada Archaeological Project’ (SELAP), a research endeavour under the auspices of the Italian Archaeological School at Athens. In addition, he is currently a senior staff and a chief pottery expert for the Mitrou Archaeological Project in Phthiotida and the Palace of Nestor Excavations at Pylos.
Bronze Age Metalwork: Techniques and traditions in the Nordic Bronze Age 1500-1100 BC by Heide W. Nørgaard. Paperback; 205x290mm; xii+502 pages; 290 figures (244 plates in colour). 474 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789690194. £85.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789690200. Book contents pageDownload

Bronze ornaments of the Nordic Bronze Age (neck collars, belt plates, pins and tutuli) were elaborate objects that served as status symbols to communicate social hierarchy. The magnificent metalwork studied here dates from 1500-1100 BC. An interdisciplinary investigation of the artefacts was adopted to elucidate their manufacture and origin, resulting in new insights into metal craft in northern Europe during the Bronze Age. Based on the habitus concept, which situates the craftsmen within their social and technological framework, individual artefact characteristics and metalworking techniques can be used to identify different craft practices, even to identify individual craftsmen. The conclusions drawn from this offer new insights into the complex organisation of metalcraft in the production of prestige goods across different workshops. Several kinship-based workshops on Jutland, in the Lüneburg Heath and Mecklenburg, allow us to conclude that the bronze objects were a display of social status and hierarchy controlled by, and produced for, the elite – as is also seen in the workshops on Zealand. Within the two main metalworking regions, Zealand and central Lower Saxony, workshops can be defined as communities of practice that existed with an extended market and relations with the local elite. Attached craft, in the sense that the craftspeople fully depended on a governing institution and produced artefacts as a manifestation of political expression, was only detected on Zealand between 1500-1300 BC.

The investigation presented here showed that overall results could not be achieved when concentrating only on one aspect of metalwork. Highly skilled craft is to be found in every kind of workshop, as well as an intensive labour input. Only when considering skill in relation to labour input and also taking into account signs of apprenticeship and cross-craft techniques, as well as the different categories of mistakes in crafting, can a stable image of craft organisation be created.

About the Author
HEIDE W. NØRGAARD is a postdoctoral researcher at the Department of Archaeology and Heritage Studies at the University of Aarhus, Denmark, where she graduated and received her PhD in 2014. With the background as an educated goldsmith, she is working with metal artefacts trying to solve craft technical problems from the Bronze to the early Iron Ages in Northern Europe. Heide W. Nørgaard is currently working on reconstructing the earliest metal trading routes towards Scandinavia, based on over 500 lead isotope analysis of the first half of the 2nd millennium BC.
Étude paléoanthropologique et analyse des rituels funéraires de deux sites laténiens valaisans Randogne – Bluche et Sion – Parking des Remparts by Tobias Hofstetter. Paperback; 205x290mm; x+240 pages; 171 figs + 6 tables (colour and black & white throughout). French text; English abstract. 444 2018 Laboratoire d’archéologie préhistorique UNIGE . Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784919375. £45.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784919382. Book contents pageDownload

This volume concerns the bioanthropological analysis and the investigation of Second Iron Age (also known as the La Tène period: 470–25 BC) funerary practices in central Valais. More precisely, it deals with the study of two necropolises lately discovered in this mountainous region of southern Switzerland: Randogne–Bluche (excavated between 2001 and 2005) and Sion–Parking des Remparts (excavated in 2006). The matter of Second Iron Age funeral practices has been investigated since the late 19th century in Switzerland and has ever since yielded many exceptional finds. In archaeological terms, the research presented in this work introduces a consistent summary of the current archaeological and historiographical state of knowledge regarding Second Iron Age funeral practices in southern Switzerland.

Étude paléoanthropologique et analyse des rituels funéraires de deux sites laténiens valaisans : Randogne – Bluche et Sion – Parking des Remparts porte sur l’analyse bioanthropologique et l’étude des rituels funéraires laténiens en Valais central. Plus précisément, elle traite des ensembles funéraires de Randogne – Bluche (fouillé entre 2001 et 2005) et de Sion – Parking des Remparts (fouillé en 2006). Le premier objectif de cette étude a consisté à attribuer une identité et des caractéristiques biologiques aux individus inhumés au sein de ces deux ensembles. Ensuite, il s’est agi de caractériser ces deux ensembles funéraires par leur insertion au cadre géographique et archéologique, de s’intéresser à leur organisation chronologique et spatiale et à l’architecture des sépultures, ainsi qu’aux positions d’inhumation, de même qu’au mobilier funéraire présent. Par la suite, nous avons développé une vision comparative de ces deux ensembles funéraires, avant de finalement les confronter à l’intégralité du corpus funéraire laténien actuellement connu pour le Valais central et ainsi chercher à proposer une vision synthétique de la question.

About the Author
TOBIAS HOFSTETTER (B.A, M.Sc.) was born in Zürich in 1992. He currently works as consulting bioanthropologist to the Laboratory of Prehistoric Archaeology and Bioanthropology at the University of Geneva, where he has collaborated in various archaeological fieldwork operations and bioanthropological assessments, covering the Mesolithic to the Middle Ages, in Switzerland, Italy, Bulgaria, Kuwait and Jordan.

TOBIAS HOFSTETTER (BA ; MSc) est né à Zürich (Suisse) en 1992. Il a obtenu son Bachelor en archéologie préhistorique et classique ainsi qu’en anthropologie à l’Université de Neuchâtel (Suisse) en 2013. Il a poursuivi ses études en Master d’archéologie préhistorique et bioanthropologie à l’Université de Genève (Suisse) ; formation qu’il a terminée en 2016. Il travaille couramment en tant que bioanthropologue consultant pour le laboratoire d’archéologie préhistorique et d’anthropologie de l’Université de Genève. À ce titre, il a participé à de nombreuses campagnes de fouilles archéologiques et expertises bioanthropologiques, s’étendant du Paléolithique jusqu’à la période médiévale, en Suisse, France, Italie, Bulgarie, Koweït et Jordanie. En parallèle, il a repris un deuxième cursus de Master en histoire et littérature anglaise à l’Université de Neuchâtel.
Reindeer hunters at Howburn Farm, South Lanarkshire A Late Hamburgian settlement in southern Scotland – its lithic artefacts and natural environment by Torben Bjarke Ballin with contributions by Alan Saville, Richard Tipping, Tam Ward, Rupert Housley, Lucy Verrill, Matthew Bradley, Clare Wilson, Paul Lincoln and Alison MacLeod. Hardback; 205x290mm; xx+124 pages; 47 illustrations, 25 tables (13 plates in colour). 433 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784919016. £25.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784919023. Book contents pageDownload

This volume presents the lithic assemblage from Howburn in South Lanarkshire, Scotland, which at present is the oldest prehistoric settlement in Scotland (12,700-12,000 BC), and the only Hamburgian settlement in Britain. The site also included a scatter from the Late Upper Palaeolithic Federmesser- Gruppen period (12,000-10,800 BC), as well as lithics from the Mesolithic, Neolithic and Early Bronze Age. The book focuses on the Hamburgian finds, which are mainly based on the exploitation of flint from Doggerland, the then dry bed of the North Sea. The Hamburgian tools include tanged arrowheads, scrapers, piercers, burins, and other implement forms which show similarities with tools of the same age on the European continent. The shape of one scatter suggests that the Palaeolithic settlers lived in tent-like structures. The Palaeolithic finds from Howburn shed light on several important general trends, such as the ‘acclimatization’ of pioneer settlers, as well as the development of regional differences following the initial Late Glacial recolonization of Scotland. Palaeo-environmental work focused on whether there was a small lake (‘Loch Howburn’) in front of the terrace on which the camp was situated, and it was concluded that there was indeed a lake there, but it was neither contemporary with the Hamburgian, nor the Federmesser-Gruppen settlement. Most likely, ‘Loch Howburn’ dates to the Loch Lomond stadial.

About the Author
After having worked as a specialist and Project Manager in Denmark, the Faroe Islands and Norway, Torben Ballin relocated to Scotland in 1998. Since that year, he has worked as an independent lithics specialist in Scotland, England, Northern Ireland and Ireland, and he is an Honorary Fellow at the University of Bradford. Torben’s special interests have been lithic terminology and typology, lithic technology, chronological frameworks, raw material studies, intra-site spatial analyses, prehistoric territories and exchange networks, and – not least – Scotland’s Late Upper Palaeolithic (LUP) and Early Mesolithic industries. While still active in Denmark, he briefly worked with Jørgen Holm at the Hamburgian/Federmesser-Gruppen site of Slotseng in Southern Jutland, and one of his academic theses was on the refitting and spatial analysis of the LUP Brommian settlement of Højgård on Zealand. While in Norway, he led the Farsund Project and the Oslofjord Crossing Project, where he analysed a large number of Norwegian Early, Middle and Late Mesolithic sites and assemblages. Since 1998, Torben has dealt with numerous Mesolithic sites and assemblages from all parts of Scotland, and lately he has focused on the discovery of Scottish LUP sites, assemblages, and individual finds and, with the late Alan Saville of National Museums Scotland he published the Federmesser-Gruppen site of Kilmelfort Cave, Argyll; with Hein Bjerck, University of Trondheim, the unique LUP Fosna-Hensbacka point from Brodgar on Orkney; and with Headland Archaeology Ltd. the LUP site of Milltimber, Aberdeenshire. Torben has recently published a number of papers in which he discussed how to recognize individual LUP finds and assemblages on the basis of their technological attributes, when no diagnostic types are present.

The following co-authors took part in the production of the Howburn monograph: The late Alan Saville, National Museums Scotland; Richard Tipping, University of Stirling; Tam Ward, Biggar Archaeology Group; Rupert Housley, Royal Holloway, University of London; Lucy Verrill, University of Stirling; Matthew Bradley, University of Stirling; Clare Wilson, University of Stirling; Paul Lincoln, University of Portsmouth; and Alison MacLeod, University of Reading.

Reviews
‘This fascinating volume focuses on a Scottish settlement site that has its origins in the Late Upper Palaeolithic (LUP), inhabited at a time when the glaciers in northern Europe were in retreat. The book presents the r
Special Place, Interesting Times: The island of Palagruža and transitional periods in Adriatic prehistory by Stašo Forenbaher with contributions by Zlatko Perhoč and Robert H. Tykot. x+194 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (60 colour plates). 421 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784918491. £34.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784918507. Book contents pageDownload

While one might say that the prehistory of the Adriatic was always in transition, the rhythm of change was not always the same. On several occasions, a series of changes over a relatively short time period resulted in dramatic transformations. Three crucial episodes of change marked the later Adriatic prehistory. The first one, which took place around year 6000 BC, was a transformation of subsistence strategy, transition from hunting and gathering to farming. The second one was a social transformation that played out in the third millennium BC, when for the first time the power of individuals was clearly expressed by material culture. The third episode, inclusion into the classic Mediterranean civilization, coincided with the end of prehistory in the Adriatic region.

During all of those episodes, travel and connectivity with distant lands played an exceptionally important role, and certain places gained particular importance due to their unique geographic location. Palagruža is among the most prominent such places, its importance being out of all proportion to its physical size. Adriatic prehistory cannot be told without mentioning Palagruža, and prehistory of Palagruža cannot be understood without knowing Adriatic prehistory. Due to its strategic position in the very center of the Adriatic Sea, due to the mystery born of distance and isolation, due to its wild and spectacular landscape, Palagruža indeed is a special place. A reflection of its specialty is an unexpected abundance of high-grade archaeological evidence, dating precisely from the three aforementioned periods marked by radical change.

About the Author
STAŠO FORENBAHER is Senior Research Advisor at the Institute for Anthropological Research in Zagreb, Croatia. He studied archaeology at the University of Zagreb (Croatia), and received his PhD from the Southern Methodist University in Dallas (TX). His research interests cover Mediterranean Prehistory with a focus on the Adriatic, and include transition to farming, formation of early elites, archaeology of caves, and lithic analysis. He has excavated at many prehistoric stratified cave sites in the eastern Adriatic, including Pupićina Cave in Istria, Vaganačka Cave in Velebit Mountain, Grapčeva Cave on the island of Hvar, and Nakovana Cave on Pelješac Peninsula. His current fieldwork is focussed on the excavation of Vela Cave on the island of Korčula.
Gifts, Goods and Money: Comparing currency and circulation systems in past societies edited by Dirk Brandherm, Elon Heymans and Daniela Hofmann. vi+228 pages; 73 figures (30 colour plates). 416 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784918354. £34.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784918361. Book contents pageDownload

The papers gathered in this volume explore the economic and social roles of exchange systems in past societies from a variety of different perspectives. Based on a broad range of individual case studies, the authors tackle problems surrounding the identification of (pre-monetary) currencies in the archaeological record. These concern the part played by weight measurement systems in their development, the changing role of objects as they shift between different spheres of exchange, e.g. from gifts to commodities, as well as wider issues regarding the role of exchange networks as agents of social and economic change. Among the specific questions the papers address is what happens when new objects of value are introduced into a system, or when existing objects go out of use, as well as how exchange systems react to events such as crises or the emergence of new polities and social constellations. One theme that unites most of the papers is the tension between what is introduced from the outside and changes that are driven by social transformations within a given group.

About the Editors
DIRK BRANDHERM studied Archaeology, Classics and Social Anthropology at the universities of Münster, Edinburgh and Freiburg. Most of his work has been in European Bronze and Iron Age archaeology, with one focus on metalwork production and depositional practices. He currently holds a position of Lecturer at Queen’s University Belfast, Northern Ireland.

ELON HEYMANS studied archaeology at the University of Amsterdam and at Tel Aviv University. He completed his PhD in Tel Aviv on the early history of money in the eastern Mediterranean Iron Age, and is currently a postdoctoral researcher at Utrecht University. His focus lies on the archaeology of Greece and the southern Levant, and he is particularly interested in the social, political and historical context of early money use.

DANIELA HOFMANN has obtained her PhD from Cardiff University and is currently Junior Professor at Hamburg University, Germany. She has published extensively on funerary archaeology, as well as the figurines and domestic architecture of the central European Neolithic, but she is also interested in instances of structured deposition and in spheres of exchange.
Life on the Edge: The Neolithic and Bronze Age of Iain Crawford’s Udal, North Uist edited by Beverley Ballin Smith. Hardback; xxxii+270 pages; highly illustrated in full colour throughout. 408 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784917708. £25.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784917715. Book contents pageDownload

The discovery of archaeological structures in North Uist in 1974 after storm damage led to the identification by Iain Crawford of a kerb cairn complex, with a cist and human remains. Six years later he went back, and over the next three years excavated another cist with human remains in its kerbed cairn, many bowl pits dug into the blown sand, and down to two late Neolithic structures and a ritual complex. He intensively studied the environmental conditions affecting the site and was among the first archaeologists in Scotland to understand the climate changes taking place at the transition between late Neolithic and the early Bronze Age. The deposition of blown sand and the start of the machair in the Western Isles, including the rise in sea-level and inundations into inhabited and farmed landscapes, are all part of the complex story of natural events and human activities.

Radiocarbon dating and modern scientific analyses provide the detail of the story of periods of starvation suffered by the people that were buried on the site, of the movement away of the community, of their attempts of bringing the ‘new’ land back into cultivation, of a temporary tent-like structure, and of marking their territory by the construction of enduring monuments to the dead.

About the Editor
BEVERLEY BALLIN SMITH took up the mantle left by Iain Crawford and has brought this first monograph on his Udal project area to publication. She has extensive experience of working on, and publishing, other large multi-period sites. She is an archaeologist who lived and worked on Orkney for many years and has first-hand experience of the archaeology of Shetland, the UK, Faroes, Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and is now based in Scotland. Beverley is the Publications Manager at GUARD Archaeology Ltd and editor of ARO (Archaeology Reports Online), with the aim of disseminating information to relevant audiences. She undertakes specialist analysis of prehistoric pottery and coarse stone tools. She has been a member of the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists for nearly all her professional life; she served on the former IfA Council, was Vice Chair for Outreach, a member of the Validation Committee and was a CIfA Board director. She is a member of the Society of Antiquaries of London and also a member of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, where she has been Vice President. She is currently President of Archaeology Scotland and a Research Associate at National Museums Scotland.

Reviews
'...Ballin Smith and her colleagues have produced a worthy volume that answers many questions concerning the complex transition period between the Neolithic and Bronze Age within an area of the British Isles that would have been seen by late prehistoric pastoralists as the edge of the known world.' – George Nash (Current Archaeology #346, January 2019)
The Classification of Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age Copper and Bronze Axe-heads from Southern Britain by Stuart Needham. 74 pages; illustrated throughout in black & white with 3 plates in colour. 43 2017. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784917401. £22.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784917418. Download

This work presents a comprehensive classification of the morphology of early metal age axe-heads, chisels and stakes from southern Britain. It is illustrated by a type series of 120 representative examples.

Despite their relative simplicity, flat and early flanged axes from Britain and Ireland show considerable diversity in form. The main variation lies in outline shapes and the classification scheme arrived at therefore depends on careful evaluation of condition, followed by rigorous analysis of shape using metrical ratios. This ensures objectivity in both the formulation of the scheme and future object attributions, for which guidelines are given. Comparative material in northern Britain and Ireland is systematically referred to and a few crucial Continental parallels noted. Hoards and other associated finds, essential in underpinning the chronology, are cited throughout.

The style sequence outlined spans nine centuries of evolution, a regional trajectory which was nevertheless inextricably tied to axe developments in northern Britain, Ireland and, to a lesser extent, the near Continent. While technological advance is apparent at the broad scale, this was not the sole driver of the style changes taking place.

The study will be indispensable for those researching early metalwork, those concerned with European Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age cultures and those interested in patterns of style-cum-technological development.

About the Author
Stuart Needham specialised in metalwork in his early career and has since diversified to cover many aspects of the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age of north-west Europe, involving themes such as deposition practices, metal circulation systems, periodisation, life- and refuse-cycles of material culture, exchange systems, maritime interactions and alluvial archaeology. Further publications have emanated from excavations at Runnymede Bridge and Ringlemere. A curator at the British Museum for thirty years before becoming an independent researcher, he co-founded the Bronze Age Forum in 1999 and delivered the Rhind lectures for the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland in 2011. He is currently Research Director of the People of the Heath project investigating Early Bronze Age barrows in the Rother Valley of East Hampshire and West Sussex.

Mercenaries or refugees? The evidence from the inscriptions of Merenptah on the ‘Sea Peoples’ Taken from Journal of Greek Archaeology Volume 2, 2017 (John Bintliff (editor-in-chief), Archaeopress, 2017) by Konstantinos Kopanias. pp.119-134. Journal of Greek Archaeology . Download

During the fifth regnal year of Merenptah (either 1208 BC or 1219 BC), king Merey of the Rebu/Lebu attacked Egypt, together with his archers and many northern warriors. These northerners were not affiliated with any of the existing minor or major kingdoms of the eastern Mediterranean, since they are only identified by obscure ethnonyms. Five inscriptions of Merenptah refer to these particular events, but they offer scarce historical information; a sixth one, inscribed on a wall of the Amun temple in Karnak, is the most elaborate one.5 Although the Karnak inscription has often been cited, most scholars usually focus on the parts referring to the ‘Sea Peoples’, which are often examined in isolation and out of their context. The aim of this paper is to re-examine the available evidence.

Journal of Greek Archaeology Volume 2, 2017 will be published in October 2017. Subscriptions are available now with special reduced rates for private subscriptions and bundle prices available for Volumes 1-2, 2016-2017. Click here to view full information for print and online subscriptions.

Continuity and Change in Etruscan Domestic Architecture by Paul M. Miller. xv+272 pages; illustrated throughout in black & white with 9 colour plates. 27 2017. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784915803. £40.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784915810. Book contents pageDownload

Etruscan architecture underwent various changes between the later Iron Age and the Archaic period (c. 800-500 BC), as seen in the evidence from several sites. These changes affected the design and style of domestic architecture as well as the use of raw materials and construction techniques. However, based on a supposed linear progression from inferior to superior building materials, explanations and interpretations often portray an architectural transition in Etruria from ‘prehistoric’ to ‘historic’ building types. This perspective has encouraged a rather deterministic, overly simplified and inequitable view of the causes of change in which the replacement of traditional materials with new ones is thought to have been the main factor.

This book aims to reconsider the nature of architectural changes in this period by focussing on the building materials and techniques used in the construction of domestic structures. Through a process of identification and interpretation using comparative analysis and an approach based on the chaîne opératoire perspective, changes in building materials and techniques are examined, with special reference to four key sites: San Giovenale, Acquarossa, Poggio Civitate (Murlo) and Lago dell’Accesa. It is argued that changes occurred in neither a synchronous nor a linear way, but separately and at irregular intervals. In this monograph, they are interpreted as resulting mainly from multigenerational habitual changes, reflecting the relationship between human behaviour and the built and natural environments, rather than choices between old and new materials. Moreover, despite some innovations, certain traditional building techniques and their associated materials continued into the Archaic period, indicating that Etruscan domestic architecture did not undergo a complete transformation, as sometimes asserted or implied in other works. This study of building techniques and materials, while not rejecting the widely held view of a significant Etruscan architectural transition, argues for a more nuanced reading of the evidence and greater recognition of the nature of behavioural change during the period in question.

Access Archaeology: This imprint is designed to make archaeological research accessible to all and to present a low-cost (or no-cost) publishing solution for academics from all over the world. Material ranges from theses, conference proceedings, catalogues of archaeological material, excavation reports and beyond. We provide type-setting guidance and templates for authors to prepare material themselves designed to be made available for free online via our Open Access platform and to supply in-print to libraries and academics worldwide at a reasonable price point. Click here to learn more about publishing in Access Archaeology.

Enfoques metodológicos en el estudio de los asentamientos fortificados de la edad del hierro Aproximación teórica a la metodología de estudio sobre la defensa del territorio en la Prehistoria Final Europea by Óscar Rodríguez Monterrubio. 145 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. Spanish text with English Abstract. 19 2016. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784914486. £30.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784914493. Book contents pageDownload

This volume focuses on the main methodological perspectives currently existing in studies on Iron Age fortified settlements. Current investigations can be characterised according to three methodological approaches: analytic, landscape and componential analysis. These approaches can be traced since the 70s and are found all around Europe from the Baltic regions to the Mediterranean coast. They are examples of diachronic and versatile methodological procedures in use today and applicable to different contexts of the European Iron Age. We introduce digital archaeology at the end of this paper. In each one of the chapters we shall focus not only on the theoretical perspective of the approach but also on its practical application to the study of actual fortified settlements from different geographic contexts. In conclusion, and despite the difficulties of using these methods when investigating Iron Age settlements, they seem to be as versatile as they are adaptable and they have evolved adopting new methods of tele-detection and geographic information systems which update and refresh them as current methodological approaches.

Access Archaeology: This imprint is designed to make archaeological research accessible to all and to present a low-cost (or no-cost) publishing solution for academics from all over the world. Material ranges from theses, conference proceedings, catalogues of archaeological material, excavation reports and beyond. We provide type-setting guidance and templates for authors to prepare material themselves designed to be made available for free online via our Open Access platform and to supply in-print to libraries and academics worldwide at a reasonable price point. Click here to learn more about publishing in Access Archaeology.

Journal of Greek Archaeology Volume 1 2016 Sampler edited by John Bintliff (Ed. in Chief). p. i-vi; 109-148; 406-420; 466-470. Black & white and colour illustrations. Journal of Greek Archaeology . Download

Archaeopress is delighted to be launching a new journal in October 2016 with an editorial board headed by John Bintliff (Edinburgh University, U.K. and Leiden University, The Netherlands). The scope of this journal is Greek archaeology both in the Aegean and throughout the wider Greek-inhabited world, from earliest Prehistory to the Modern Era. Thus we include contributions not just from traditional periods such as Greek Prehistory and the Classical Greek to Hellenistic eras, but also from Roman through Byzantine, Crusader and Ottoman Greece and into the Early Modern period. Outside of the Aegean contributions are welcome covering the Archaeology of the Greeks overseas, likewise from Prehistory into the Modern World. Greek Archaeology for the purposes of the JGA thus includes the Archaeology of the Hellenistic World, Roman Greece, Byzantine Archaeology, Frankish and Ottoman Archaeology, and the Postmedieval Archaeology of Greece and of the Greek Diaspora.

This Open Access sampler has been designed to act as an introduction and taster to the scope and style of this new journal. It includes one complete paper and two review articles as well as full contents listings for Volume 1 and subscription information (including some special offers).

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Networks of trade in raw materials and technological innovations in Prehistory and Protohistory: an archaeometry approach Proceedings of the XVII UISPP World Congress (1–7 September 2014, Burgos, Spain) Volume 12/Session B34 edited by Davide Delfino, Paolo Piccardo, and João Carlos Baptista. viii+104 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. 264 2016. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784914233. £25.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784914240. Book contents pageDownload

The papers collected in this book correspond to the lectures held during session B34 of UISPP conference in Burgos (June 2014) where the presentation of multidisciplinary works were encouraged. The main goal of bringing together specialists from various disciplines (humanities and natural sciences) was to debate, from different perspectives, the networks in raw materials and technological innovation in Prehistory and Protohistory, involving investigation topics typical of archaeometry: archeometallurgy, petrography, and mineralogy.

Early Iron Age metal circulation in the Arabian Peninsula: the oasis of Tayma as part of a dynamic network (poster) Taken from Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 46 (2016) by Martina Renzi, Andrea Intilia, Arnulf Hausleiter & Thilo Rehren. Pages 237-246.Download

The oasis of Tayma, located in north-western Arabia, between the Hijaz mountains and the great Nafud desert, was strategically situated on one of the branches of the main trade routes that connected southern Arabia and the Mediterranean Sea during the first millennium BC. During archaeological excavations at this site — a project carried out by a Saudi Arabian-German team — an architectural complex of public character dated to the Early Iron Age (eleventh–ninth centuries BC) was investigated in Area O, in the southwestern section of the ancient settlement. Among other finds, a significant concentration of luxury goods (i.e. objects made of ivory, wood, bone, and faïence) was discovered there, together with a few iron and several copper-based artefacts. Of this assemblage, fifty-eight copper-based objects have been analysed by portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF), while sixteen have undergone trace element and lead isotope analyses. The objects chosen to be analysed included everyday items, such as rivets and fragments of rods, three small metal lumps, and a bracelet. The data on their elemental composition and lead isotope signatures combined to indicate that different metal sources were used, suggesting the existence of a highly dynamic metal trade in the wider region during the Early Iron Age. The full volume is available in paperback here.
Iron Age metallurgy at Salūt (Sultanate of Oman): a preliminary note (poster) Taken from Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 46 (2016) by Michele Degli Esposti, Martina Renzi & Thilo Rehren. Pages 81-88.Download

Extensive excavations at the Iron Age site of Salūt, near Bisyā in central Oman, revealed a complex architecture, allowing the reconstruction of a long history of building activities and rearrangements. Among the discovered structures, none can clearly be associated to metal production, although a small vertical furnace could be tentatively interpreted as a metallurgical structure, possibly used for small-scale copper/bronze remelting. The presence of charcoalrich deposits, metal scraps, and stored broken objects in its vicinity also points in this direction. A selection of these items, together with some plano-convex ingots from other contexts within the site, has been analysed and the preliminary results are outlined here. The significance of this work is underlined by the current dearth of data on Iron Age metallurgy in the Oman peninsula, compared to comprehensive studies of Bronze Age metal production, when the land of Magan was widely renowned for its wealth of copper ores. Click on the PDF to read the full paper online, or download to your device. The full volume is available in paperback here.
Proceedings of the 17th Iron Age Research Student Symposium, Edinburgh 29th May - 1st June 2014 edited by Graeme JR Erskine, Piotr Jacobsson, Paul Miller and Scott Stetkiewicz. xvi+158 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. 14 2016. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784913571. £34.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784913588. Book contents pageDownload

Since its conception in 1998, the Iron Age Research Student Symposium (formerly ‘Seminar’) has provided postgraduates in the archaeology of Iron Age Britain an opportunity to present their current research in a friendly atmosphere. During the course of both formal seminars and informal outings (such as field trips, dinners, and the traditional pub quiz), the Iron Age Research Student Symposium (IARSS) gives students the ability to discuss their research with colleagues and peers, in addition to a number of outstanding lecturers and professors in Iron Age studies. Previous proceedings volumes (Davis et al. 2006; Humphrey 2003; Sterry et al. 2010), also offered participants the prospect of publishing their seminar paper. As a result, IARSS has become a fixture in the development of new academics while at the same time contributing fresh perspectives to Iron Age dialogues.

This proceedings volume, organised to reflect three general themes (migration/interaction, material culture and the built environment), accomplishes two things. First, it provides an accessible survey of emerging concepts, ideas, methods, and fieldwork that will shape future study of the Iron Age. Second, it is an outline, not just of what the 17th IARSS accomplished, but also of a broader scheme envisioned by the organisers for future events in this Symposium series. It is the (perhaps wide-eyed) expectation of the organisers that the IARSS can and should expand to offer further opportunities to research students of the Iron Age, and they firmly hope that this volume aids in the promotion of this annual Symposium, as well as the ideas of the contributing authors.

Access Archaeology: Our newest imprint is designed to make archaeological research accessible to all and to present a low-cost (or no-cost) publishing solution for academics from all over the world. Material will range from theses, conference proceedings, catalogues of archaeological material, excavation reports and beyond. We will provide type-setting guidance and templates for authors to prepare material themselves designed to be made available for free online via our Open Access platform and to supply in-print to libraries and academics worldwide at a reasonable price point. Click here to learn more about publishing in Access Archaeology.

Late Prehistory and Protohistory: Bronze Age and Iron Age Proceedings of the XVII UISPP World Congress (1–7 September 2014, Burgos, Spain) Volume 9 / Sessions A3c and A16a edited by Fernando Coimbra, Davide Delfino, Valeriu Sîrbu and Cristian Schuster. xii+222 pages; illustrated throughout in black and white. All papers in English, abstracts in English and French. 234 2016. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784912970. £38.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784912987. Book contents pageDownload

1. The Emergence of warrior societies and its economic, social and environmental consequences Proceedings of the XVII UISPP World Congress (1–7 September 2014, Burgos, Spain) Session A3c edited by Fernando Coimbra and Davide Delfino

Several works have been dedicated to the aim of warfare in European Bronze Age, by a point of view of bronze technology and archaeometallurgy. The present volume wants to be a short and actualized contribution to the study and interpretation of warrior societies, through a point of view of the marks of the first warfare in Europe, its causes and its consequences in all the intelligible evidences, both from a point of view of material culture, of landscape, of human behavior and artistic manifestations.

2. Aegean – Mediterranean imports and influences in the graves from continental Europe – Bronze and Iron Ages Proceedings of the XVII UISPP World Congress (1–7 September 2014, Burgos, Spain) Session A16a edited by Valeriu Sîrbu and Cristian Schuster

There is already a ‘history’ with not only different, but sometimes contradictory opinions regarding the role played by the Aegean-Mediterranean area in the evolution of the peoples who lived in continental Europe during the age of Bronze and Iron, including burial customs. The organizers of this session proposed, through ongoing communication and the discussions that followed, to obtain new data on the influences and Aegean-Mediterranean imports found in the graves, and the possible movements of groups of people who carried them. The main area of interest focused on the ‘roads’ and the stages of their penetration, but also considered feedback from peripheral areas. The session aims to highlight the role of the southern imports in the evolution of local communities’ elites and their impact on the general development of the populations of continental Europe, the possible meanings of their deposit in the burials. Analysis of these phenomena over wide geographical areas (from the Urals to the Atlantic) and large chronological periods (the third-. first millennia BC) allow the identification of certain traits as general (eg., the continuity and discontinuity), or particular (eg., the impact of imports and southern influences on communities of different geographical areas).

‘A Mersshy Contree Called Holdernesse’: Excavations on the Route of a National Grid Pipeline in Holderness, East Yorkshire Rural Life in the Claylands to the East of the Yorkshire Wolds, from the Mesolithic to the Iron Age and Roman Periods, and beyond edited by Gavin Glover, Paul Flintoft, Richard Moore. xii+286 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. 225 2016. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784913137. £40.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784913144. Book contents pageDownload

Twenty sites were excavated on the route of a National Grid pipeline across Holderness, East Yorkshire. These included an early Mesolithic flint-working area, near Sproatley. In situ deposits of this age are rare, and the site is a significant addition to understanding of the post-glacial development of the wider region. Later phases of this site included possible Bronze Age round barrows and an Iron Age square barrow. Elsewhere on the pipeline route, diagnostic Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age flints, as well as Bronze Age pottery, provide evidence of activity in these periods.

Iron Age remains were found at all of the excavation sites, fourteen of which had ring gullies, interpreted as evidence for roundhouse structures. The frequency with which these settlements occurred is an indication of the density of population in the later Iron Age and the large assemblage of hand-made pottery provides a rich resource for future study. Activity at several of these sites persisted at least into the second or early third centuries AD, while the largest excavation site, at Burton Constable, was re-occupied in the later third century. However, the pottery from the ring gullies was all hand-made, suggesting that roundhouses had ceased to be used by the later first century AD, when the earliest wheel-thrown wares appear. This has implications for understanding of the Iron Age to Roman transition in the region.

Late first- or early second-century artefacts from a site at Scorborough Hill, near Weeton, are of particular interest, their nature strongly suggesting an association with the Roman military.

Analysis of the Economic Foundations Supporting the Social Supremacy of the Beaker Groups Proceedings of the XVII UISPP World Congress (1–7 September, Burgos, Spain): Volume 6 / Session B36 edited by Elisa Guerra Doce and Corina Liesau von Lettow-Vorbeck. vi+156 pages; illustrated throughout in black and white. 215 2016. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784913076. £30.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784913083. Book contents pageDownload

The Bell Beaker phenomenon is one of the most fascinating horizons in European Later Prehistory, due to its vast geographical distribution, the intrinsic value of some of the artefacts comprising the Beaker package, or its supposed links to certain kinds of ritual ceremonies as shown by the frequent deposition of Beaker items in burial contexts. At present, the idea that the Beaker package is best interpreted as a symbol of power common to socially-prominent individuals by the mid-to-late third millennium BC is widely acknowledged by scholars in this field. From this point of view, the Beaker phenomenon is seen as the archaeological evidence representing an ideology which was shared by a number of prehistoric societies geographically scattered throughout much of Western and Central Europe, or, more specifically, was only shared by elite individuals within these territories.

The strategies employed by these individuals to attain such privileged statuses, however, are poorly known. Therefore, in the framework of the XVII World UISPP Congress, held in September 2014 in Burgos (Spain), a session entitled ‘Analysis of the economic foundations supporting the social supremacy of the Beaker groups’ (B36) was organised by this volume’s two editors. The session focused mostly on examining this issue at a European level, and less on the study of the Beaker package itself, as a way of looking at the economic foundations that helped these individuals attain their higher social statuses.

The proximity of Beaker sites to natural routes of communication highlights the importance of exchange networks through which people, objects and ideas may have circulated through Europe during this time. The Amesbury Archer in southern England is one of the best examples of interaction within Beaker territories. Having said this, considering that Beaker pots themselves were not exchanged over long distances, attention must be paid to other mechanisms of diffusion. The present volume comprises the papers presented at this session suggesting that Beaker groups may have controlled certain products and technologies.
Geometric Period Plithos Burial Ground at Chora of Naxos Island, Greece: Anthropology Report by Anagnostis P. Agelarakis. 94 pages; colour graphs throughout. 10 2016 Access Archaeology . Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784913038. £28.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784913045. Book contents pageDownload

This report aims to offer glimpses of the human condition on Naxos island, Greece, focusing on the archaeoanthropologic study of the human skeletal remains along with associated contexts of faunal materials recovered from the Geometric (9th -7th c BC) component of the burial ground site of Plithos in Chora at Naxos island.

Access Archaeology: Our newest imprint is designed to make archaeological research accessible to all and to present a low-cost (or no-cost) publishing solution for academics from all over the world. Material will range from theses, conference proceedings, catalogues of archaeological material, excavation reports and beyond. We will provide type-setting guidance and templates for authors to prepare material themselves designed to be made available for free online via our Open Access platform and to supply in-print to libraries and academics worldwide at a reasonable price point. Click here to learn more about publishing in Access Archaeology.

Ritual Landscapes and Borders within Rock Art Research Papers in Honour of Professor Kalle Sognnes edited by Heidrun Stebergløkken, Ragnhild Berge, Eva Lindgaard and Helle Vangen Stuedal. i-viii, 1-188 pages, illustrated in colour throughout. 190 2015. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784911584. £42.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784911591. Download

Ritual landscapes and borders are recurring themes running through Professor Kalle Sognnes' long research career. This anthology contains 13 articles written by colleagues from his broad network in appreciation of his many contributions to the field of rock art research. The contributions discuss many different kinds of borders: those between landscapes, cultures, traditions, settlements, power relations, symbolism, research traditions, theory and methods.

We are grateful to the Department of Historical studies, NTNU; the Faculty of Humanities; NTNU, The Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters and The Norwegian Archaeological Society (Norsk arkeologisk selskap) for funding this volume that will add new knowledge to the field and will be of importance to researchers and students of rock art in Scandinavia and abroad.
Bronze Age Tell Communities in Context – An Exploration Into Culture, Society and the Study of European Prehistory Part 1 – Critique: Europe and the Mediterranean by Tobias L. Kienlin. vi+168 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. 161 2015. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784911478. £38.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784911485. Book contents pageDownload

This study challenges current modelling of Bronze Age tell communities in the Carpathian Basin in terms of the evolution of functionally-differentiated, hierarchical or ‘proto-urban’ society under the influence of Mediterranean palatial centres. It is argued that the narrative strategies employed in mainstream theorising of the ‘Bronze Age’ in terms of inevitable social ‘progress’ sets up an artificial dichotomy with earlier Neolithic groups. The result is a reductionist vision of the Bronze Age past which denies continuity evident in many aspects of life and reduces our understanding of European Bronze Age communities to some weak reflection of foreign-derived social types – be they notorious Hawaiian chiefdoms or Mycenaean palatial rule. In order to justify this view, this study looks broadly in two directions: temporal and spatial. First, it is asked how Late Neolithic tell sites of the Carpathian Basin compare to Bronze Age ones, and if we are entitled to assume structural difference or rather ‘progress’ between both epochs. Second, it is examined if a Mediterranean ‘centre’ in any way can contribute to our understanding of Bronze Age tell communities on the ‘periphery’. It is argued that current Neo-Diffusionism has us essentialise from much richer and diverse evidence of past social and cultural realities. Instead, archaeology is called on to contribute to an understanding of the historically specific expressions of the human condition and human agency, not to reduce past lives to abstract stages on the teleological ladder of social evolution.
Ostentazione di rango e manifestazione del potere agli albori della società micenea by Federica Gonzato. 262 pages; black & white illustrations. Italian text. 4 2012. ISBN 9788876992278. Download

Le manifestazioni materiali del potere sono una caratteristica fondamentale delle società umane e costituiscono pertanto, per lo studioso delle culture antiche, una delle chiavi di lettura più ricche e promettenti. In questo volume, l’autrice propone una interpretazione delle prime fasi di formazione (XVII-XV secolo a.C.) dell’organizzazione sociale della cultura micenea attraverso l’esame degli attributi di potere (insignia dignitatis) trovati nelle sepolture di questo periodo in Argolide, culla della civiltà micenea in Grecia. Lo sviluppo della realtà micenea precedente la grande fase palaziale del XIV-XIII secolo a.C. viene analizzato da un punto di vista etnoantropologico e storico, introducendo una fondamentale distinzione fra beni di prestigio ed attributi di potere (spesso effimeri e polisemantici, in quanto soggetti ad una continua variazione della nozione di valore), ma ponendo anche attenzione alle storia delle dinamiche sociali e alle strategie per il mantenimento della leadership attraverso la manipolazione di una ideologia di cui gliinsignia dignitatis rappresentano la materializzazione.
Site, Artefacts and Landscape Prehistoric Borġ in-Nadur, Malta by Davide Tanasi and Nicholas C. Vella. 450 pages; illustrated throughout in black & white. 3 450. ISBN 9788876992230. Download

The Bronze Age of the Maltese archipelago has long been overlooked by archaeologists whose attention has mostly been focused on the Late Neolithic temples. This book attempts to understand the islands’ Bronze Age society in the course of the second millennium BC by exploring the history of Borg in-Nadur in south-east Malta. The site of a megalithic temple and re-used in later periods when a fortified settlement was built on the plateau, Borg in-Nadur was visited by travellers and antiquarians in the course of the Early Modern period, and was investigated by archaeologists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. This collection of essays discusses the early attempts to understand the site, and presents a comprehensive catalogue of the finds that have never been properly published. It also considers the site in its local landscape setting and in its regional south-central Mediterranean context, and explores issues related to past and present public outreach and site management.
Setting the Scene: The deceased and regenerative cult within offering table imagery of the Egyptian Old to Middle Kingdoms (c.2686 – c.1650 BC) by Barbara O’Neill. 123 pages. Archaeopress Egyptology . Download

Ancient Egyptian offering table scenes have been explored from chronological and art historical perspectives over the past century of Egyptological research. This descriptive overview has usually centred on the diachronic evolution of philology and food offerings, focussing less frequently on offering table images as discrete elements of highly codified information. The exploration into offering table imagery presented in this study examines two key elements: gender and the performance of ritual incorporated within scene structure. Latent and hidden potential of life within the ancient Egyptian tomb was subject to a complex process of metaphysical transformation achieved through external cult and provisioning provided by the family of the deceased, and through internalised cult present in ritually charged texts and imagery. The hypothesis that the offering table depiction functioned as an influential element in this transformational continuum will be explored in this work.

This study investigates gender-based and ritual-dependent afterlife expectations of the deceased over a key phase in Egyptian history from the latter part of the Old Kingdom to the end of the Middle Kingdom Period, c.2686 BC - c.1650 BC. Conclusions indicate that the transformational journey to the afterlife can be understood through a meaningful synthesis of people, produce and ritual embedded within offering table depictions.
Die Anfänge des kontinentalen Transportwesens und seine Auswirkungen auf die Bolerázer und Badener Kulturen by Tünde Horváth. iv+77 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. German text.. Access Archaeology . Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784913175. £24.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784910839. Book contents pageDownload

The earliest finds of wheeled vehicles in northern and central Europe date to 3900-3600 BC. However finds (3400–3300 BC) from the Boleráz sites of Arbon/Bleiche 3 and Bad Buchau/Torwiesen II, linked to pile-dwelling settlements, indicate methods of transport typical for higher altitudes (slides, sleds, etc.). The Boleráz and Baden cultures overlap in the Carpathian Basin between 3300–3000 BC and this period seems to have produced transport models that parallel finds in today’s Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, and other regions. These suggest that generally the Boleráz settlers inside the Carpathian Basin did not know, or use, the wheel in the fullest sense. Cart and wheel forms are indicated only from Grave 177 at Budakalász (2800–2600 BC). The Hungarian Baden finds follow the Danube and to the East there are no certain vehicle remains. It is difficult to tell whether the Boleráz finds are linked to the wider Alpine zone, and the Baden finds are perhaps associated with the mixed-culture sites along the eastern slopes of the Carpathians. The four-wheeled wagon was a development linked to the plains and the Steppes (Cucuteni–Tripolje, Pre-Yamnaja, Yamnaja). The nature of the finds relating to vehicles associated with lake and riverine settlements reveal technical and material features: there is evidence of a high degree of carving, if not decoration, and these communities pointed the way for future skills and developments in wheel and cart/wagon manufacture.

Access Archaeology: Our newest imprint is designed to make archaeological research accessible to all and to present a low-cost (or no-cost) publishing solution for academics from all over the world. Material will range from theses, conference proceedings, catalogues of archaeological material, excavation reports and beyond. We will provide type-setting guidance and templates for authors to prepare material themselves designed to be made available for free online via our Open Access platform and to supply in-print to libraries and academics worldwide at a reasonable price point. Click here to learn more about publishing in Access Archaeology.

Alternative Trajectories in Bronze Age Landscapes and the ‘Failure’ to Enclose: A Case Study from the Middle Dunajec Valley Taken from Settlement, Communication and Exchange around the Western Carpathians by Tobias L. Kienlin, Marta Korczyńska and Klaus Cappenberg. Pages 159-200.Download

Drawing on current archaeological work in the surroundings of the Bronze Age hilltop-settlement of Janowice on the middle part of the Dunajec valley in this paper we want to highlight some shortcomings in the traditional modelling of Bronze Age landscapes. Instead of focusing on political power and the control of trade and exchange along the Dunajec valley, it is asked in what other sense the hilltop-settlement of Janowice with its long history of occupation from broadly the Middle Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age could have been ‘central’ for the development of this micro-region. GIS applications are used to integrate the spatial data obtained and to improve our understanding of local environment, choices of site location and subsistence economy. In a wider perspective, attention is drawn to the variability in Bronze Age landscapes – even along the course of the same river valley. In broadly the same cultural and natural setting there were different ‘solutions’ or strategies available to communities in order to cope with external restraints and cultural notions how social life should be organised. The development of these communities was contingent upon numerous factors beyond even the most sophisticated attempt at geographical modelling. In consequence, we must not mistake any notions we may hold on the development of Bronze Age society for a model of general applicability.

This paper is taken from Settlement, Communication and Exchange around the Western Carpathians edited by T. L. Kienlin, P. Valde-Nowak, M. Korczyńska, K. Cappenberg and J. Ociepka, Archaeopress 2014. Click on the PDF to read the full paper online, or download to your device. The full volume is available in paperback here.
New Geophysical Data on the Internal Structure of the Gáva Sites of Andrid-Corlat and Căuaş-Sighetiu in North-Western Romania Taken from Settlement, Communication and Exchange around the Western Carpathians by Tobias L. Kienlin and Liviu Marta. Pages 381-403.Download

Over the past years there has been an intensification of archaeological research on fortified settlements of the Late Bronze Age Gáva culture in the lowlands or marshes of the Tisza river and its tributaries. Unlike fortified sites on the hilltops along the mountain ranges of the Carpathians, that traditionally attracted archaeological research, much less is known on their lowland counterparts. It is in the context of this group of fortified lowland sites that Căuaş-Sighetiu and Andrid-Corlat have to be seen, which are located on islands in the swamps of the Romanian Ier valley. Fortified sites of the Gáva culture and its neighbouring groups, that may reach substantial size, are interpreted everything from the proto-urban centres of hierarchical societies, via the focal points of tribal groups, to refuges in times of crisis or enclosures for livestock. In fact, little still is known on the occupation of such sites. Our work at Căuaş- Sighetiu and Andrid-Corlat is one step towards a better understanding of such sites in terms of their internal organisation and their function in a wider settlement network. Drawing on data from a joint project of the Muzeul Judeţean Satu Mare and the Institut für Ur- und Frühgeschichte, Universität zu Köln, in this paper we will focus on the spatial organisation of the settlement remains. New magnetometer data is available that allows for the first time a comparison of both sites and their internal organisation. It is shown, that even in the same micro-region and during broadly the same period, there may be considerable variability. Our data indicate that both sites were occupied by closely comparable household units. Between them, however, they show indications of rather different notions how social space should be organised. It is an important task for future work to understand why such differences occurred, and how such sites relate to smaller neighbouring sites in chronological and functional terms.

This paper is taken from Settlement, Communication and Exchange around the Western Carpathians edited by T. L. Kienlin, P. Valde-Nowak, M. Korczyńska, K. Cappenberg and J. Ociepka, Archaeopress 2014. Click on the PDF to read the full paper online, or download to your device. The full volume is available in paperback here.