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Early Iron Age metal circulation in the Arabian Peninsula: the oasis of Tayma as part of a dynamic network (poster) Taken from Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 46 (2016) by Martina Renzi, Andrea Intilia, Arnulf Hausleiter & Thilo Rehren. Pages 237-246.Download

The oasis of Tayma, located in north-western Arabia, between the Hijaz mountains and the great Nafud desert, was strategically situated on one of the branches of the main trade routes that connected southern Arabia and the Mediterranean Sea during the first millennium BC. During archaeological excavations at this site — a project carried out by a Saudi Arabian-German team — an architectural complex of public character dated to the Early Iron Age (eleventh–ninth centuries BC) was investigated in Area O, in the southwestern section of the ancient settlement. Among other finds, a significant concentration of luxury goods (i.e. objects made of ivory, wood, bone, and faïence) was discovered there, together with a few iron and several copper-based artefacts. Of this assemblage, fifty-eight copper-based objects have been analysed by portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF), while sixteen have undergone trace element and lead isotope analyses. The objects chosen to be analysed included everyday items, such as rivets and fragments of rods, three small metal lumps, and a bracelet. The data on their elemental composition and lead isotope signatures combined to indicate that different metal sources were used, suggesting the existence of a highly dynamic metal trade in the wider region during the Early Iron Age. The full volume is available in paperback here.
Iron Age metallurgy at Salūt (Sultanate of Oman): a preliminary note (poster) Taken from Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 46 (2016) by Michele Degli Esposti, Martina Renzi & Thilo Rehren. Pages 81-88.Download

Extensive excavations at the Iron Age site of Salūt, near Bisyā in central Oman, revealed a complex architecture, allowing the reconstruction of a long history of building activities and rearrangements. Among the discovered structures, none can clearly be associated to metal production, although a small vertical furnace could be tentatively interpreted as a metallurgical structure, possibly used for small-scale copper/bronze remelting. The presence of charcoalrich deposits, metal scraps, and stored broken objects in its vicinity also points in this direction. A selection of these items, together with some plano-convex ingots from other contexts within the site, has been analysed and the preliminary results are outlined here. The significance of this work is underlined by the current dearth of data on Iron Age metallurgy in the Oman peninsula, compared to comprehensive studies of Bronze Age metal production, when the land of Magan was widely renowned for its wealth of copper ores. Click on the PDF to read the full paper online, or download to your device. The full volume is available in paperback here.
Metallurgical Production in Northern Eurasia in the Bronze Age by Stanislav Grigoriev. 831 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. 6 2015 Access Archaeology . Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784912758. £80.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784912369. Book contents pageDownload

Copper is the first metal to play a large part in human history. This work is devoted to the history of metallurgical production in Northern Eurasia during the Bronze Age, based on experiments carried out by the author and analyses of ancient slag, ore and metal. It should be noted that archaeometallurgical studies include a huge range of works reflecting different fields of activity of ancient metallurgists. Often, all that unites these is the term ‘metallurgy’. This work considers the problems of proper metallurgy, i.e. extracting metal from ore. A number of accompanying operations are closely connected with it, such as charcoal-burning, ore dressing, furnace constructing, and preparation of crucibles. In some instances the author touches upon these operations; however the main topic of the work is the smelting process. The closing stage of the metallurgical production is metalworking including various casting and forging operations, and also auxiliary operations: making of crucibles, casting molds, stone tools for metal forging. These problems are, as a rule, out of frameworks of this research.

Access Archaeology: Our newest imprint is designed to make archaeological research accessible to all and to present a low-cost (or no-cost) publishing solution for academics from all over the world. Material will range from theses, conference proceedings, catalogues of archaeological material, excavation reports and beyond. We will provide type-setting guidance and templates for authors to prepare material themselves designed to be made available for free online via our Open Access platform and to supply in-print to libraries and academics worldwide at a reasonable price point. Click here to learn more about publishing in Access Archaeology.

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