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NEW: From Hispalis to Ishbiliyya: The Ancient Port of Seville, from the Roman Empire to the End of the Islamic Period (45 BC – AD 1248) by Carlos Cabrera Tejedor. Paperback; 205x290mm; xx+216 pages; 170 figures, 5 tables (92 plates in colour). (Print RRP £45.00). 534 2019. ISBN 9781789690583. £45.00 (No VAT). Book contents pageBuy Now

From Hispalis to Ishbiliyya: The ancient port of Seville, from the Roman Empire to the end of the Islamic period (45 BC - AD 1248) focuses on the history and development of the ancient port of Seville, which is located in the lower Guadalquivir River Basin, Spain. This unique study is important because, despite its commercial importance, little has been known about the port, and so the purpose was to examine the topography, layout, and facilities of the ancient port of Seville, their history and development from approximately the 1st c. BC to about the 13th c. AD. This longue durée study was conducted adopting a holistic and interdisciplinary approach by examining a diverse range of information (historical, archaeological and scientific), a maritime archaeological perspective as well as a diachronic study of three different historical periods (Roman, Late Antique, Islamic). As a result, it has been possible to offer a description of the construction, development, and demise of the port. The study was one of the first comprehensive studies of an ancient port in Spain and one of the first to be conducted in a combined holistic and diachronic manner in Europe. This methodology has produced significant results not obtained with other simpler approaches, thus serving as a model for studies of other archaeological sites, especially those in relation with maritime or riverine culture.

About the Author
Carlos Cabrera Tejedor is a maritime archaeologist with a diverse and multi-disciplinary background and an interest in shipbuilding and ports. He started as a conservator, completing two bachelor’s degrees, one in Fine Arts Restoration and the other in Archaeological Conservation. He also completed a Master of Arts degree in Nautical Archaeology from Texas A&M University, worked as a project director and research associate at the Institute of Nautical Archaeology (INA), and a received a DPhil in Archaeology at the University of Oxford.

Regarding the study of ancient ships, Dr Cabrera conducted the study of the Mazarrón 1 shipwreck, a 7th century BC Phoenician boat excavated in Spain that constitutes the only known example of hull-remains from that century. He also completed a post-doctoral research study, at the University of Oxford, on the hull of Ship 11, a 5th – 4th century BC ritual vessel excavated in the Grand Canal of Thonis-Heracleion (Egypt) associated with the Mysteries of Osiris and his Temple. Included among Dr Cabrera’s on-going international collaborations is a project with the Soprintendenza Archeologia, Belle Arte e Paesaggio per le Province di Pisa, where he is responsible for studying and publishing the naval architecture of a number of Roman vessels excavated at the Pisa-San Rossore train station, Pisa (Italy).
NEW: Maritime-Related Cults in the Coastal Cities of Philistia during the Roman Period Legacy and Change by Simona Rodan. Paperback; 175x245mm; ii+212 pages; 40 figures (26 pages in colour). 571 2019 Archaeopress Roman Archaeology 60. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781789692563. £35.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789692570. £16.00 (Exc. VAT) Institutional Price £35.00 (Exc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

Maritime-Related Cults in the Coastal Cities of Philistia during the Roman Period questions the origins and the traditions of the cultic rites practised during Roman times along the southern shores of the Land of Israel. This area was known since biblical times as ‘Peleshet’ (Philistia), after the name of one of the Sea Peoples that had settled there at the beginning of the Iron Age. Philistia’s important cities Jaffa, Ashkelon, Gaza and Rafiah were culturally and religiously integrated into the Graeco-Roman world. At the same time, each city developed its own original and unique group of myths and cults that had their roots in earlier periods. Their emergence and formation were influenced by environmental conditions as well as by ethno-social structures and political circumstances. Philistia’s port cities served as crossroads for the routes connecting the main centres of culture and commerce in ancient times. Most of their cults were closely associated with the sea, and reflect the existential dependency of the inhabitants on the sea that supplied them with sustenance and livelihood and was regarded as a divine beneficent power. The myths also echo the lives of the sailors, their beliefs and fears derived from encountering the dangers of the sea: storms, floods, reefs and giant fish portrayed as monsters. The population of the cities was of mixed and varied ethnic and cultural origins. This was the result of the waves of conquests and migrations over the ages, yet each city was noted for its unique ethnic components. The book also deals with the political circumstances, which had a decisive impact on the formation of religious life and cultic rites in all four cities. It sheds new light to the understanding of the events and historical processes in the region.

About the Author
Simona Rodan is a historian whose field of research are the beliefs, customs and cultic practices in the ancient Mediterranean world, and their reflection in literature and art from the ancient period to the modern times. She holds a PhD in Maritime Civilizations from the University of Haifa. Rodan is the author of The Goddess of Luck, the City and the Sea: The Cult of Tyche and Fortuna in the Coastal Cities of Eretz Israel (2014) (in Hebrew) and Aegean Mercenaries in Light of the Bible: Clash of Cultures in the Story of David and Goliath (2015).
NEW: Geophysical Phenomena and the Alexandrian Littoral by N. Evelpidou, C. Repapis, C. Zerefos, H. Tzalas and C. Synolakis. Hardback; 175x245mm; x+132 pages; 51 figures, 2 tables (51 pages in colour). 561 2019. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781789692341. £28.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789692358. £16.00 (Exc. VAT) Institutional Price £28.00 (Exc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

Alexandria is located on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, bordered by Egypt’s Western Desert and the fertile Nile Delta. For many centuries, Alexandria was the major port city in the Eastern Mediterranean and it has been repeatedly struck by natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis and land subsidence, in its ~2400-year history. This book focuses on the geomorphological and archaeological evidence on the coastal zone of Alexandria, attempting to provide a comprehensive review of its evolution, taking into consideration long-term and short-term factors.

The book provides an extensive background on the geomorphology and recent geoarchaeological history of Alexandria, discussing historical maps and natural disasters. In the coastal area of Alexandria there is numerous archaeological evidence, such as burial sites, quarry activities and ancient building remnants, as well as geomorphological features, all revealing a complex evolution of the coastal zone. New evidence, such as fish tanks and ship wrecks in order to discuss the Late Holocene evolution of the coastal zone. Detailed illustrations and maps accompany the book chapters providing the reader the opportunity to gain an extensive view of Alexandria’s features.

About the Authors
Niki Evelpidou is a Professor of Geomorphology and Geoinformatics at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, and Faculty Affiliate of the Department of Geology and Environmental Geosciences of the College of Charleston, USA. Prof. Evelpidou is actively involved in the research fields of geomorphology, coastal geomorphology, sea level changes, palaeogeography, geology, spatial technologies, study and modelling of natural hazards, while emphasizing on the use of new technologies and innovation.

Christos Repapis was Director of the Research Centre of Atmospheric Physics and Climatology of the Academy of Athens (1985-2005) and has remained as Research Associate of the Centre since his retirement.

Christos Zerefos heads the Research Centre for Atmospheric Physics and Climatology, Academy of Athens and is president-elect of the General Assembly of the Hellenic Foundation for Research and Innovation. Other roles academic posts include Professor of Atmospheric and Environmental Physics (Universities of Athens and Thessaloniki), Visiting Professor (Universities of Minnesota and Boston) and Samarbeidspartnere (University of Oslo).

Harry Tzalas has conducted a range of innovative experimental archaeological studies relating to ancient sea vessels. In 1997 he formed the Hellenic Institute of Ancient and Mediaeval Alexandrian Studies and obtained a concession from the Egyptian Authorities for an underwater survey of 14 kilometers of the eastern littoral of Alexandria; 28 campaigns were successfully conducted.

Costas Synolakis is Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of Southern California and a a member of the Academy of Athens holding the Chair of Earth Sciences. His research studies the impact of natural hazards, and particularly tsunamis and extreme flooding events on beaches. He has participated or led 30 scientific expeditions in 21 countries, practically in all of the world’s oceans and seas.
Porti e approdi fluviali in Italia peninsulare Dall’età romana all’anno Mille by Alessandro Luciano. Paperback; 205x290mm; x+106 pages (122pp); 60 figures (black & white throughout). Italian text. 549 2019. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781789692204. £25.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789692211. £16.00 (Exc. VAT) Institutional Price £25.00 (Exc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

In the Imperial Age, many ports in Italy had been built in opus coementicium. The most important ones were in Latium (eg. Portus Romae, Antium and Centumcellae), in the Phlegrean Fields (portus Iulius, Misenum, Puteoli and Baiae) and along the northern-Adriatic coast (Classis-Ravenna, Aquileia and Altino). The military fleets of Augustus, in particular, were quartered in the ports of Classis and Misenum.

Most Roman ports were located at river mouths and/or in lagoon areas and were connected with inland areas by rivers or artificial canals. For this reason, port structures (piers and warehouses) were set at some distance from the sea, as in Rome (Emporium of Testaccio along the Tiber), in Pisa-San Rossore and in the Po valley.

In Late Antiquity many of the Roman ports gradually fell into disuse while others continued until the 7th century. In Ravenna, however, a new port settlement, known as Civitas Classis, came into being in the 5th century, after the creation of the suburb of Portus Romae. In the Early Middle Ages, the northern-Adriatic coast became very important in connection with trade with Constantinople. New settlements equipped with timber port structures were created at Comacchio, Cittanova and in the Venetian lagoon. If maritime trade in the Tyrrhenian Sea decreased (although to a lesser extent in Byzantine towns like Naples), river-borne traade was still dynamic and often managed by abbeys and other ecclesiastical institutions. According to historical sources, many river wharves were located along the Po while San Vincenzo abbey managed the Volturno river. The Carolingian river wharves of San Vincenzo were composed of timber, stone and, according to the Roman tradition, concrete structures. A slow recovery of maritime trades is already evident in the Carolingian Age.

This book analyses the Roman and early medieval ports of Italy and the building techniques used in their structures; it displays the elements of continuity and discontinuity revealed during these centuries.

About the Author
ALESSANDRO LUCIANO was born in 1980 and works at the National Archaeological Museum of Naples (MANN). He has a degree in Conservation of Cultural Heritage and a doctorate in Ancient Sciences. His main scientific interests relate to the transition between Antiquity and the Middle Ages, with particular regard to port structures, the cult of saints and relics, religious architecture, the evolution of the city of Naples and the processing of bone. He has devoted dozens of publications to specialized and popular journals in the field, presenting the results of his research at national and international conferences. In 2019, he published a historical novel about the last days of the life of Pliny the Elder.

Italian Description
Le coste italiane in epoca imperiale erano costellate di porti in opus coementicium, i più importanti dei quali erano nel Lazio (Portus Romae, Antium e Centumcellae ad esempio), in area flegrea (portus Iulius, Miseno, Puteoli e Baia) e sulla costa alto-adriatica (Classe-Ravenna, Aquileia ed Altino); quelli di Classe e Miseno, in particolare, alloggiavano le flotte militari istituite da Augusto.

I porti romani si trovavano generalmente alle foci di fiumi e/o in aree lagunari, ed erano collegati all’entroterra mediante i fiumi stessi o canali artificiali, ragion per cui non sono mancati rinvenimenti di strutture portuali (come banchine e magazzini) in città non costiere, come a Roma (Emporio del Testaccio lungo il Tevere), a Pisa-San Rossore e nei centri padani.

Nella tarda Antichità molti porti decaddero gradualmente, alcuni sopravvivendo fino al VII secolo. A Ravenna, invece, un nuovo insediamento portuale, noto come Civitas Classis, nacque nel V secolo, dopo che anche Portus si era trasformato in un sobborgo costiero. Nell’Altomedioevo, la costa adriatica divenne strategica in relazione ai commerci con Costantinop
The Poole Iron Age Logboat edited by Jessica Berry, David Parham and Catrina Appleby. Paperback; 205x290mm; x+122 pages; 82 Figures, 10 tables (48 colour pages). 531 2019. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781789691443. £30.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789691450. £16.00 (Exc. VAT) Institutional Price £30.00 (Exc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

The Poole Iron Age logboat, one of the largest surviving prehistoric watercraft in Britain, is today imposingly displayed in the entrance to Poole Museum in Dorset. However, the vessel faced a difficult journey from its first discovery to the amazing artefact we can now see.

Recovered from Poole Harbour in 1964, it is impossible to overestimate the international significance of this vessel. But until now it had never been fully recorded and apart from its impressive size, very little was known about it. Its dimensions made it inherently unstable and suggest it was designed for use solely in Poole Harbour.

This book is the culmination of significant multi-disciplinary work carried out by a variety of specialists, from conservators to woodworking and boatbuilding experts, exploring not only the craft’s history but also its functionality – or lack of – as a vessel. Digital recording, using the latest technology, has made it possible to test its capabilities. For the first time, prehistorians, nautical archaeologists and lay people alike can understand the story of one of Britain’s oldest boats – the archaeological and historical background, the environmental context, the timber and ship science, and the challenges of conserving such an important vessel.

About the Editors
JESSICA BERRY is an award-winning maritime archaeologist, a diver, and founder and CEO of MAST. She is a maritime archaeologist MA (Hons) MA ACIfA and a former journalist with UK broadsheets. Since completing her Masters at Flinders University in Australia, she has worked on a number of major maritime archaeological projects both in the UK and internationally whilst growing and developing MAST into an internationally respected organisation that is changing the ways in which underwater cultural heritage is perceived and how it can be better protected.

DAVID PARHAM is a Professor in Maritime Archaeology at Bournemouth University. He is an experienced archaeologist and diver / diving supervisor who has directed maritime archaeological projects that range in date from the Bronze Age to the Second World War and in scope from strategic studies to extensive field investigations. He has worked extensively throughout the British Isles as well as the Baltic, Mediterranean, Indian Ocean, South China Sea and Arabian Sea. His research interests focus on the archaeology of seafaring and ship construction of all periods but can extend into underwater cultural heritage management on occasions.

CATRINA APPLEBY has been working in archaeology for 40 years. She studied at Durham and Birmingham universities and has wide experience in many types of archaeology, from excavation and field survey to HERs and planning. She has worked for a variety of organisations in England and Scotland. She is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and a Member of the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists. For the past 20 years her work has focused on editing archaeological and heritage publications, including nine years as the Publications Manager for the Council for British Archaeology, during which time CBA titles won several awards. She now works as a freelance editor for a number of publishers.
Archaic and Classical Harbours of the Greek World The Aegean and Eastern Ionian contexts by Chiara Maria Mauro. Paperback; 205x290mm; viii+116 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. (Print RRP £30.00). 516 2019. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781789691283. £30.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789691290. £16.00 (Exc. VAT) Institutional Price £30.00 (Exc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

Archaic and Classical Harbours of the Greek World explores the archaeology and history of ancient harbours and focuses on the Greek world during the Archaic and Classical eras. Its objective is to establish a consensus on three fundamental questions: What locations were the most propitious for the installation of harbours? What kinds of harbour-works were built and for what purpose? What harbour forms were documented? These subjects have been addressed by evaluating multiple forms of evidence (archaeological, geographical, nautical, textual, iconographic and geological) in the context of the Aegean and Eastern Ionian maritime settings.

About the Author
CHIARA MARIA MAURO gained an MA in Classical Archaeology at the University of Pisa (Italy) in 2012 with a dissertation on Phoenician seafaring in the Archaic period, and in 2014 she completed a master’s degree in Teaching History, Geography and History of Art at the Autonomous University of Madrid (Spain). In 2016 she obtained a PhD in Studies on the Ancient World from the Complutense University of Madrid (Spain). In 2015 she was Visiting Research Student at the University Alma Mater (Bologna, Italy); in October 2017 she was awarded an Irish Research Council Postdoctoral Fellowship to work on the project ‘Ancient Harbours in the Greek World: A study of Aegean and eastern Ionian Sea harbours from the dawn of the city-state to the Classical period’. She is currently Postdoctoral Fellow at the Haifa Center for Mediterranean History in the Department of Maritime Civilizations.
Recommendations for best practices in data acquisition methods for natural and cultural heritage management of Moroccan coastal wetlands Recommandations pour les bonnes pratiques en matière de méthodes d’acquisition de données pour la gestion du patrimoine naturel et culturel des zones humides côtières marocaines by Athena Trakadas and Nadia Mhammdi. Paperback; 170x240mm; vi+92 pages; full colour throughout. 522 2019. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781789691504. £25.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789691511. £16.00 (Exc. VAT) Institutional Price £25.00 (Exc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

As part of the CBDAMM Project (Capacity Building of Data Acquisition Methods with a view to promoting natural and cultural heritage management practices in Morocco), a set of recommendations for the processes of acquiring data in marine environments and coastal wetlands has been established for Moroccan stakeholders.

Recommendations for best practices in data acquisition methods for natural and cultural heritage management of Moroccan coastal wetlands aims to outline the functional procedures for conducting scientific coastal marine surveys in the Moroccan context. It outlines the requirements, methods, and practices of the four scientific fields that rely on shared data from such surveys: hydrography, marine geology, marine biology and toxicology, and maritime archaeology and heritage management. The content is derived from workshops, study visits, and fieldwork surveys carried out during the CBDAMM Project, utilising the specific case-study of the Oued Bouregreg, a tidal river and wetland that runs between the urban centres of Rabat and Salé, on the Atlantic coast of Morocco.

Dans le cadre du projet CBDAMM (Renforcement des capacités des méthodes d’acquisition de données en vue de promouvoir les pratiques de gestion du patrimoine naturel et culturel au Maroc), un ensemble de recommandations pour les processus d’acquisition de données dans les milieux marins et les zones humides côtières a été établi pour les parties prenantes marocaines.

Cette brochure, intitulée Recommandations pour les bonnes pratiques en matière de méthodes d’acquisition de données pour la gestion du patrimoine naturel et culturel des zones humides côtières marocaines, vise à décrire les procédures fonctionnelles pour mener des études côtières scientifiques dans le contexte marocain. Cette brochure décrit les exigences, les méthodes et les pratiques des quatre domaines scientifiques qui reposent sur des données partagées provenant de ces investigations: hydrographie, géologie marine, biologie marine et toxicologie, archéologie maritime et gestion du patrimoine. Le contenu résume les ateliers, les séjours scientifiques et les recherches sur le terrain menées au cours du projet CBDAMM, avec pour étude de cas spécifique: Oued Bouregreg, une rivière à marée semidiurne de type mésotidal et une zone humide qui s’étend entre les centres urbains de Rabat et Salé, sur la Côte Atlantique du Maroc.
Bridging the Gap in Maritime Archaeology: Working with Professional and Public Communities edited by Katy Bell. Paperback; 203x276mm; viii+148 pages; 62 figures (15 plates in colour). (Print RRP £35.00). 77 2019. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789690859. £35.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789690866. Book contents pageDownload

Bridging the Gap in Maritime Archaeology: Working with Professional and Public Communities marks the publication of a conference session held at CIfA 2014. The session was organised by the Marine Archaeology Special Interest Group which is a voluntary group of CIfA Archaeologists which exists to promote greater understanding of marine archaeology within the wider archaeological community. The session focused on ways in which it is possible, given the obvious constraints of working in the marine environment, to engage with a wider audience in the course of maritime archaeological work. The volume presents a series of case studies exhibiting best practice with regard to individual maritime projects and examples of outreach to local communities, including the creation of accessibility to remote and hard-to-reach archaeological sites.

About the Editor
KATY BELL is an archaeologist with 15 years’ experience of British Archaeology. She is a qualified scuba diver holds an MA in Maritime Archaeology from the University of Southampton. She is currently a PhD candidate at the University of Winchester and is examining the Mesolithic to Neolithic transition on the Isle of Wight. She has recently finished working on a community project ‘Dodnor Rediscovered’ training community archaeologists and recording the buildings of the Medina Cement Mills, Isle of Wight, which sent hydraulic cement all around the country via the Medina River and the Solent.
Early Maritime Cultures in East Africa and the Western Indian Ocean Papers from a conference held at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (African Studies Program) 23-24 October 2015, with additional contributions by Akshay Sarathi. Paperback; 203x276mm; viii+228 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (60 plates in colour). 66 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784917128. £48.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784917135. Book contents pageDownload

The East African coast and the Western Indian Ocean are regions of global historical significance. This volume contains papers first presented at the conference, Early Maritime Cultures of the East African Coast, held at the University of Wisconsin-Madison on October 23-24, 2015. Rather than limiting publication to the proceedings of the conference, additional contributions were solicited to expand the scope of the research presented and to place East Africa in its broader geographic and cultural contexts. The resulting volume focuses broadly on East Africa and the Western Indian Ocean and unites the papers under the general themes of movement and connection.

These papers represent a multi-disciplinary effort to examine East Africa and the Western Indian Ocean. Multiple lines of evidence drawn from linguistics, archaeology, history, art history, and ethnography come together in novel ways to highlight different aspects of the region’s past and offer innovative avenues for future research. The papers cover a diverse array of topics, including but not limited to: subsistence, watercraft traditions, trade and exchange (especially concerning the Silk Routes), migration, food ways, and familial relationships. This volume is unique in that it includes some speculative research as well, intended to present novel methods to deal with data-poor topics and to start important conversations about understudied topics.

The goal of this volume is to showcase aspects of the complex cultures and histories of this vast region and to emphasize its importance to world history. Ideally, it will generate scholarly and popular interest in the histories and cultures of the region and bring to the fore Africa’s and the Western Indian Ocean’s important (yet often overlooked) role in world historical narratives. It may also serve as a more advanced introduction to East Africa’s and the Western Indian Ocean’s history of interaction with other regions of the Old World and as a survey of methods used to understand the region’s past.

About the Editor
AKSHAY SARATHI is a graduate student of Archaeology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. His research interests include the zooarchaeology of maritime adaptations, Indian Ocean trade and exchange, and East African coastal archaeology. More specifically, his current research project focuses on the island of Zanzibar, where he has excavated the sites of Unguja Ukuu, Kizimkazi Dimbani, and Kuumbi Cave. Data from these sites will form the basis of his dissertation, which will examine how dietary preferences changed over time at each site in response to various stimuli over time. He currently resides in Madison, WI (USA) with his two feline overlords.
Introduzione alle antichità di Ventotene Ricerche archeologiche nell’isola di Ventotene 1 by Giovanni Maria De Rossi and Salvatore Medaglia. Paperback; 205x290mm; iv+120 pages; 158 figures (81 plates in colour). Italian text. 469 2018 Archaeopress Roman Archaeology 44. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781789690170. £32.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789690187. £16.00 (Exc. VAT) Institutional Price £32.00 (Exc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

Ventotene is a small island located in the Tyrrhenian sea, known in Antiquity as Pandateria. The site hosts the ruins of a large Roman villa for otium dated to the Augustan age where, during the first century AD, many women related to imperial families were exiled and enclosed. Notable figures exiled to Ventotene include Agrippina the Elder, Julia Livilla and Claudia Octavia, amongst others. This volume is an introduction to the roman antiquities of the island and is the first of a series of thematic monographs dedicated to the island. The first part of the book offers a brief overview of the geology of the island and reviews the studies and archaeological excavations carried out in Ventotene since the 18th century. The central part of the monograph is dedicated to the reconstruction of the historical events that have affected the island and to the development of the archaeological topography of the Roman age. The final chapter examines the numerous underwater archaeological discoveries made in the waters surrounding the island.

Ventotene è una piccola isola del medio Tirreno conosciuta nell’antichità con il nome di Pandateria. In questo luogo si conservano gli imponenti resti di una villa romana di età augustea destinata all’otium. Nel corso del I sec. d.C. l’isola funse da luogo di prigionia per una serie di donne legate alla famiglia imperiale che vi furono mandate in esilio. La prima di esse fu, nel 2 a.C., Giulia: era stata accusata di impudicizia sulla base della ‘Lex Iulia de adulteriis coercendis’ e rimase nell’isola con sua madre Scribonia, che la seguì volontariamente, fino al 3 d.C. Nel 29 d.C. la relagatio ad insulam toccò ad Agrippina Maggiore esiliata su ordine di Tiberio: la figlia di Giulia e di Vipsanio Agrippa morì a Ventotene nel 33 d.C. e le sue spoglie furono recuperate e riportate in pompa magna a Roma da Caligola nel 37 d.C. Dal 39 al 41 d.C. l’imperatore Caligola confinò a Pandateria sua sorella Iulia Livilla. Nel 62 d.C. Nerone mandò in esilio a Ventotene Ottavia, sua prima moglie, che vi morì solo pochi giorni dopo. L’ultima esiliata fu, nel 95 d.C., Flavia Domitilla, nipote di Domiziano, accusata di giudaismo. Questo volume costituisce un’introduzione alle antichità romane di Ventotene ed è il primo di una serie contributi monografici dedicati da Archaeopress Publishing al patrimonio archeologico isolano. Nella prima parte del libro si offre una breve panoramica sulla geologia e sulla storia degli studi e degli scavi che hanno interessato Ventotene sin dal XVIII secolo. La parte centrale della monografia è dedicata alla ricostruzione dei tempi e dei modi che hanno caratterizzato lo sviluppo insediamentale dell’isola e si fornisce un esauriente quadro della topografia di età imperiale. Il capitolo finale prende in esame le numerose testimonianze archeologiche recuperate nelle acque che circondano Ventotene.

About the Authors
Giovanni Maria De Rossi (Rome, 1942), Professor of Topography of ancient Italy at University of Salerno, has published many books about ancient and medieval Topography. He has directed archaelogical excavations in Italy; he conceived and designed the Archaeological Park and Historical and Archaeological Museum in Ventotene island; he has directed, in Ventotene, the archaeological excavations and, for twenty years, the Museum. | Giovanni Maria De Rossi (Roma, 1942), Professore Ordinario di Topografia dell’Italia Antica presso l’Università di Salerno, è autore di molte pubblicazioni scientifiche di Topografia antica e medievale. Ha diretto numerosi scavi in Italia. Ha ideato il Parco Archeologico e il Museo Storico Archeologico dell’Isola di Ventotene, dirigendo, nell’isola, gli scavi e, per 20 anni, il Museo.

Salvatore Medaglia (Crotone, 1971) is a classical archaeologist. He holds a PhD in Ancient Topography from the University of Salento and a joint Post-PhD in Landscape Archaeology at the University of Calabria and the University o
SOMA 2015: Time, Space and People Proceedings of the 19th Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology edited by Murat Arslan. iv+190 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (69 colour plates). 49 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784918514. £44.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784918521. Book contents pageDownload

The 19th annual meeting of the Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology (SOMA) was held in Kemer/Antalya (Turkey) from the 12th to the 14th of November, 2015. As has been the case in the past, this symposium continues to provide an important opportunity for scholars and researchers to come together and discuss their academic studies in a friendly and supportive atmosphere. The proceedings of SOMA 2015 contain eighteen interdisciplinary articles on themes from underwater archaeology to history, archaeometry and art history, and chronologically, the subjects of these articles range from the Bronze Age to the 20th century.

About the Editor
Murat Arslan is the editor of SOMA 2015. He is professor of Ancient History at Akdeniz University in Antalya (Turkey). He is interested in Ancient Greek and Ancient History, especially the Classical and Hellenistic periods, and historiography. In addition to his monographs (Galatians, Mithradates VI Eupator, Classical and Hellenistic History of Byzantion), his translations and commentaries on periplus (Arrianus, Ps. Scylax), and Memnon of Heracleia Pontica, he is the current editor in chief of several international journals (Cedrus, MJH, Phaselis, Libri).
Shipwrecks and Provenance: in-situ timber sampling protocols with a focus on wrecks of the Iberian shipbuilding tradition by Sara A. Rich, Nigel Nayling, Garry Momber and Ana Crespo Solana. vi+66 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (21 colour plates). 42 2017. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784917173. £20.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784917180. Book contents pageDownload

Two of the questions most frequently asked by archaeologists of sites and the objects that populate them are ‘How old are you?’ and ‘Where are you from?’ These questions can often be answered through archaeometric dating and provenance analyses. As both archaeological sites and objects, shipwrecks pose a special problem in archaeometric dating and provenance because when they sailed, they often accumulated new construction material as timbers were repaired and replaced. Additionally, during periods of globalization, such as the so-called Age of Discovery, the provenance of construction materials may not reflect where the ship was built due to long-distance timber trade networks and the global nature of these ships’ sailing routes. Accepting these special challenges, nautical archaeologists must piece together the nuanced relationship between the ship, its timbers, and the shipwreck, and to do so, wood samples must be removed from the assemblage. Besides the provenance of the vessel’s wooden components, selective removal and analysis of timber samples can also provide researchers with unique insights relating to environmental history. For this period, wood samples could help produce information on the emergent global economy; networks of timber trade; forestry and carpentry practices; climate patterns and anomalies; forest reconstruction; repairs made to ships and when, why, and where those occurred; and much more.

This book is a set of protocols to establish the need for wood samples from shipwrecks and to guide archaeologists in the removal of samples for a suite of archaeometric techniques currently available to provenance the timbers used to construct wooden ships and boats. While these protocols will prove helpful to archaeologists working on shipwreck assemblages from any time period and in any place, this book uses Iberian ships of the 16th to 18th centuries as its case studies because their global mobility poses additional challenges to the problem at hand. At the same time, their prolificacy and ubiquity make the wreckage of these ships a uniquely global phenomenon.
The Resurgam Submarine ‘A Project for Annoying the Enemy’ by Peter Holt. xiv+118 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. 327 2017. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784915827. £24.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784915834. £15.00 (Exc. VAT) Institutional Price £24.00 (Exc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

For centuries inventors have been dreaming up schemes to allow people to submerge beneath the waves, stay a while then return again unharmed. The Resurgam was designed for this purpose, as a stealthy underwater weapon which was the brainchild of an eccentric inventor realised in iron, timber, coal and steam. The inventor was George William Garrett, a curate from Manchester who designed and built the Resurgam submarine in 1879 using the limited technology available to a Victorian engineer on a small budget. This is not the story of Garrett himself as this story has already been told, instead this book tells the story how the Resurgam was built, how she may have worked and what happened to her. The book introduces Garrett the inventor then puts the creation of Resurgam in context by considering similar submarines being developed at the end of the 19th century. Garrett’s relationship with the Royal Navy is related here as they were his intended client and the tale continues with a description of how the submarine was built and how it may have worked. The end of the story relates how the Resurgam came to be lost in 1880 pieced together from documents and newspaper reports. Curiously, aspects of the tale do not fit with what was found by underwater archaeologists recording the wreck so other ideas are explored about how and why the submarine was lost.
Cedar Forests, Cedar Ships Allure, Lore, and Metaphor in the Mediterranean Near East by Sara A. Rich. Paperback; 175x245mm; x+280 pages; highly illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. 249 2016. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784913656. £44.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784913663. £16.00 (Exc. VAT) Institutional Price £44.00 (Exc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

It is commonly recognized that the Cedars of Lebanon were prized in the ancient world, but how can the complex archaeological role of the Cedrus genus be articulated in terms that go beyond its interactions with humans alone? And to what extent can ancient ships and boats made of this material demonstrate such intimate relations with wood? Drawing from object-oriented ontologies and other ‘new materialisms,’ Cedar Forests, Cedar Ships constructs a hylocentric anti-narrative spreading from the Cretaceous to the contemporary. With a dual focus on the woods and the watercraft, and on the considerable historical overlap between them, the book takes another step in the direction of challenging the conceptual binaries of nature/culture and subject/object, while providing an up-to-date synthesis of the relevant archaeological and historical data.

Binding physical properties and metaphorical manifestations, the fluctuating presence of cedar (forests, trees, and wood) in religious thought is interpreted as having had a direct bearing on shipbuilding in the ancient East Mediterranean. Close and diachronic excavations of the interstices of allure, lore, and metaphor can begin to navigate the (meta) physical relationships between the forested mountain and the forest afloat, and their myriad unique realities.

Reviews

'The bulk of this study is devoted to assembling a wide array of information from disparate disciplines, which is a great service to the academic community, and this monograph will undoubtedly be a useful reference for years to come.' - Marcus Ziemann, The Ohio State University (Bryn Mawr Classical Review) Full review here: http://www.bmcreview.org/2018/06/20180638.html

'This is a complex and compelling account that ranges widely across genres and ideas in pursuit—or perhaps more appropriately, under the spell—of cedar forests and the objects hewn from their wood.' - Robert Witcher, Durham University (Antiquity, 2017)
Amphorae in the Eastern Mediterranean by Hakan Öniz. vi+198 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. 307 2016. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784915162. £40.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784915179. £16.00 (Exc. VAT) Institutional Price £40.00 (Exc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

Amphorae in the Eastern Mediterranean is designed to share the subject of amphorae which were found on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey with the wider scholarly community. Amphorae from the shipwrecks discovered during underwater research, as well as the amphora specimens held in the region’s largest museum, Antalya Museum, are examined. To widen the scope of the book, the Aydın Aytuğ collection, which consists of amphorae collected in the region, is also included. Mediterranean amphorae which have not been found during excavations and underwater research undertaken by the author’s team up to now, are also presented. The amphorae and amphora-laden shipwrecks that are examined derive from the research carried out between 2011 and 2015, conducted in Antalya province in Lycia, Pamphylia and Rough West Cilicia regions, and off the coast of Silifke, which is a part of Rough East Cilicia. This research has obtained a wealth of new information, leading to a fresh look at the archaeology in this area.

About the Author:
Hakan Oniz studied at the Department of Art History and Archaeology, Eastern Mediterranean University, and obtained MA and PhD in underwater archaeology at Selcuk University of Konya in Turkey. He is one of the founders of UNESCO Uni Twin Underwater Archaeology Network and between 2012 and 2015 served as its first coordinator. He is the director of Selcuk University Underwater Research Centre and head of the Underwater Archaeology Division of the same University. He is also head of the Underwater Archaeology research projects in Turkish Mediterranean Coast, member of ICOMOS-ICUCH (International Committee of Underwater Cultural Heritage), specialist member of ICOMOS Turkey – National Committee of Underwater Cultural Heritage, member of UNESCO National Observation Committee of Underwater Archaeology. As an Assistant Professor he lectures on underwater archaeology and underwater photography at several universities in Turkey and Europe.
The Maritime Traditions of the Fishermen of Socotra, Yemen by Julian Jansen van Rensburg. x+186 pages; illustrated in black & white throughout. 286 2016. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784914820. £33.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784914837. £15.83 (Exc. VAT) Institutional Price £33.00 (Exc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

The Socotra archipelago lies approximately 135 nautical miles (Nm) northeast of Cape Guardafui, Somalia and 205Nm south of Rās Fartaq, Yemen. The archipelago is made up of four main islands, Socotra, cAbd al-Kūri, Samḥa and Darsa, of which Socotra is the largest and most densely populated. The population of Socotra is divided between the interior pastoralists and the coastal fishermen and traders. While scholarly studies concerning the interior population abound, the fishermen of Socotra have received comparatively less attention and little about them or their traditions is known. This research seeks to address this balance by analysing the Socotri maritime traditions and addressing the question as to how social, environmental and technological influences have shaped the maritime traditions of the fishermen of Socotra. The primary data forming the basis of this book is author’s ethnographic fieldwork carried out on the islands of Socotra and Samḥa between 2009 and 2010. This data is incorporated within a transdisciplinary framework that looks at some of the essential factors of historical, archaeological and environmental evidence to gain a holistic insight into the spatial and temporal factors affecting the maritime traditions of the fishermen.

About the author: Julian Jansen van Rensburg received his doctorate in September 2013 from the Institute of Arab and Islamic Studies at the University of Exeter. His thesis examined how local, regional and global influences have, over time, influenced the traditions and technologies of the maritime communities on the island of Socotra, Yemen. This research formed part of the MARES Project, a multi-disciplinary, multi-period project focusing on the maritime traditions of the peoples of the Red Sea and Arabian-Persian Gulf. Following his doctorate he was awarded funding from the Honor Frost Foundation to undertake research into the tangible and intangible maritime heritage of the fishing communities in Anfeh, Lebanon. This research project included a maritime ethnographic workshop for Lebanese students and members of local NGOs. The workshop was used to train the participants in quantitative and qualitative techniques of maritime ethnography and traditional vessel recording. This research formed a part of the wider Anfeh Project being run by the University of Balamand. Subsequently, Julian received a National Geographic grant to study rock art on Socotra, the results of which are part of his current research as a Dahlem Research School POINT Fellow within the Excellence Cluster Topoi. He holds positions on the steering committee for the British Foundation for the Study of Arabia and the Executive Committee of the Friends of Socotra. He is also an Assistant Editor of the Proceedings for the Study of Arabia. His research interests include underwater archaeology, maritime ethnography and the typology of traditional boats of the Near East, rock art studies, GIS applications in archaeology, landscape archaeology, island and coastal archaeology, Indian Ocean trade networks in Antiquity and the Islamic Period, and cultural heritage management.
Argonauts of the Stone Age Early maritime activity from the first migrations from Africa to the end of the Neolithic by Andrzej Pydyn. viii+255 pages; illustrated throughout in black & white with 11 colour plates. 219 2016. ISBN 9781784911430. £36.00 (No VAT). Book contents pageBuy Now

This is an important book. Too often in the past archaeologists have ignored or underestimated sea travel in early prehistory but the evidence has been growing and now it is presented to us in full in this thought provoking study. No longer can those interested in the human achievement neglect to take into account the astonishing achievements of our palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic ancestors.

This book gives a full account of stone age seafaring presenting the archaeological evidence in the context of the changing world environment and uses ethnographic sources to broaden the readers understanding of the worlds earliest sea craft. It is essential reading for all concerned to understand the human condition. – Professor Sir Barry Cunliffe, Oxford

The book is a comprehensive study of early navigation and its place in the development of human culture from the earliest times to the late Stone Age. This subject is very timely in light of increasing archaeological and palaeoanthropological evidence that the maritime environment had been mastered in prehistory. As the author rightly points out at the beginning of his book, the maritime environment can no longer be marginalised when portraying both hunter-gatherer and early agrarian prehistoric communities.

The book is a valuable and inspiring work on a subject which had hitherto not enjoyed such in-depth treatment. It greatly enhances our perception of the beginnings of human culture and enriches it with comprehensive, convincing arguments that the maritime environment had been mastered by early humans. I congratulate the author on the effect he has achieved and on unearthing so many chronologically, geographically and thematically diverse sources. – Prof. Paweł Valde-Nowak, Jagiellonian University, Krakow

The title of the book intrigues the reader and promises a fascinating read about issues approached from an innovatively broad perspective. Both the global territorial scope and the chronological range covering almost two million years of human cultural development are worthy of note. What we have here is an aspect of human activity which is often neglected and marginalised in scientific research, which is that directly related to the sea. The fact that up to 90% of Pleistocene coasts, which were after all heavily populated in the Stone Age, have been flooded in modern times is not conducive to large-scale research, as underlined by the author in the Introduction.

The beginnings of human activity on the high seas are the subject of research in numerous scientific disciplines, all of which are discussed here. In writing this book the author has drawn on an exceptionally wide range of literature, mostly in English, owing to which the author’s own views, as well as those of other researchers whom he cites, are credible and convincing. – Dr hab. Krzysztof Cyrek, professor of Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń

Reviews

‘…Pydyn makes a compelling case that pre-Homo sapiens may have utilized water transport technology. Even the use of natural floats was perhaps “culturally enriched,” meaning that our ancestors consciously affected the direction of drifting or floating. He also argues that studies of early maritime activity have demonstrated the research potential of the continental shelf, because many Paleolithic and Neolithic sites are likely underwater… Argonauts of the Stone Age is a well-illustrated and engaging addition to the recent volumes on early seafaring and maritime activities.’ – Katelyn Dibenedetto, University of Nevada (Journal Of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology And Heritage Studies, Vol 5, Nos 3-4, 2017)

SOMA 2013. Proceedings of the 17th Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology Moscow, 25-27 April 2013 edited by Sergei Fazlullin, Mazlum Mert Antika. 262 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. 5 2015 Access Archaeology . Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784912673. £45.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784912291. Book contents pageDownload

Papers from the 17th Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology, SOMA 2013 held in Moscow, 25-27 April 2013.

Access Archaeology: Our newest imprint is designed to make archaeological research accessible to all and to present a low-cost (or no-cost) publishing solution for academics from all over the world. Material will range from theses, conference proceedings, catalogues of archaeological material, excavation reports and beyond. We will provide type-setting guidance and templates for authors to prepare material themselves designed to be made available for free online via our Open Access platform and to supply in-print to libraries and academics worldwide at a reasonable price point. Click here to learn more about publishing in Access Archaeology.

The Danubian Lands between the Black, Aegean and Adriatic Seas (7th Century BC-10th Century AD) edited by Gocha R. Tsetskhladze, Alexandru Avram and James Hargrave. xx+563 pages; illustrated throughout in black & white. Papers in English, French & German. 189 2015. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784911928. £75.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784911935. £16.00 (Exc. VAT) Institutional Price £75.00 (Exc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress on Black Sea Antiquities (Belgrade – 17-21 September 2013)

The themes of this volume are concerned with archaeological, historical, linguistic, anthropological, geographical and other investigations across the vast area (and different regions) through which the Argonauts travelled in seeking to return from Colchis: from the eastern shore of the Black Sea and the mouth of the Danube to the Adriatic. The contributions investigate an extended time period, from Greek colonisation to the end of Antiquity, and different cultural influences involving peoples and states, Greek cities, native peoples, Roman rule and events in Late Roman times. Each particular study contributes to the ground research, helping to create a complete picture of the theoretical level of cultural and political development and interaction of different cultures. The research and general conclusions concerning the social, ethnic, cultural and political development of the peoples who lived around the Black Sea shore and along the great Danube and Sava rivers can be reliable only if based on the detailed study of particular questions related to the extensive area stretching from the Black Sea to the Adriatic, and involving the many different peoples and epochs which lasted many hundreds of years.
Shipwrecks and Global ‘Worming’ by P. Palma and L.N. Santhakumaran. ii+62 pages; illustrated in full colour throughout.. Access Archaeology . Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784913151. £20.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784913168. Book contents pageDownload

Marine borers, particularly the shipworms, as destroyers of timber, par excellence, are well known from very ancient times. They attacked the wooden hulls of ships with such intensity that the weakened bottom planks broke up even due to a mild impact caused by hitting a rock or any floating objects inducing shipwrecks. Even the survival of sunken ships as wrecks depends on the mercy of wood-destroying organisms, which may turn these ‘port-holes’ to history into meaningless junks. The silent saboteurs, involved in several early shipwrecks, are the molluscan and crustacean borers, aided by bacteria and fungi.

This paper presents an account of the marine wood-borers, together with a historical review of literature on their depredation on wooden ships, and on protective methods adopted from antiquity to modern times. The seriousness with which early mariners faced the problem of bio-deterioration and the fear the wood-borers created in their minds have been brought to light with, in some cases, excerpts from their journals and books. The anxiety and concern for protecting the ships from the ravages of wood-borers and for their own safety, as evidenced from their accounts, are discussed. Classification of various groups of marine wood-borers with notes on characters of systematic value and a complete list of species so far recorded in literature have been included under Appendix I and II. Methods employed to prevent damage to the boats included deep-charring, coating with pitch, coal-tar, whale oil and mustard oil with lime; scupper nailing (‘filling’); sheathing with animal skin, hair, tarred paper, wooden boards (untreated or soaked in coal tar, Ferrous sulphate, Copper sulphate or Lead monoxide); sheathing with metals (Lead or Copper sheets); plastic, neoprene coated ply-woods; and painting with Copper oxide, Pentachlorophenol or phenylarsenious oxide. None of these imparts complete protection. Recent archaeological investigations carried out in British waters, especially on ‘Mary Rose’, are also summarised. It is suggested that, though borers are instrumental in inducing ship-wrecks thereby enriching the materials for archaeological studies, excavations at known ship-wreck sites should be augmented to unearth valuable historical data, before they are lost to satisfy the insatiable appetite of these pests.

Access Archaeology: Our newest imprint is designed to make archaeological research accessible to all and to present a low-cost (or no-cost) publishing solution for academics from all over the world. Material will range from theses, conference proceedings, catalogues of archaeological material, excavation reports and beyond. We will provide type-setting guidance and templates for authors to prepare material themselves designed to be made available for free online via our Open Access platform and to supply in-print to libraries and academics worldwide at a reasonable price point. Click here to learn more about publishing in Access Archaeology.

Ships, Saints and Sealore: Cultural Heritage and Ethnography of the Mediterranean and the Red Sea edited by Dionisius A. Agius, Timmy Gambin and Athena Trakadas with contributions by Harriet Nash. x+170 pages; illustrated throughout in black and white. 104 2014. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781905739950. £32.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781905739967. £15.83 (Exc. VAT) Institutional Price £32.00 (Exc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

Just as the sea has played a pivotal role in the connectivity of people, economies and cultures, it has also provided a common platform for inter-disciplinary cooperation amongst academics. This book is a selection of conference papers and other contributions that has seen the coming-together of scholars and researchers from backgrounds as diverse as archaeology, history, ethnography, maritime and heritage studies of the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. Its strength lies in the way such diversity has been harnessed to provide an engaging and insightful study of the sea and its influences on various factors of life - both past and present.
WreckProtect: Decay and protection of archaeological wooden shipwrecks edited by Charlotte Gjelstrup Björdal & David Gregory, with assistance from Athena Trakadas. viii+154 pages; illustrated throughout in colour. Hardback.. 65 2012. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781905739486. £14.95 (No VAT). Buy Now

This book stems from the results of an interdisciplinary European Union supported research project, WreckProtect, which investigated the decay and preservation of wooden shipwrecks under water in the Baltic Sea. It is not limited to the decay of wrecks in the Baltic alone and is aimed at all stakeholders with a vested interest in the protection of the underwater cultural heritage including marine archaeologists, conservators, engineers, and students in related fields at universities around the world. The book includes chapters on the anatomy and structure of wood and the physical and biological decay of shipwrecks under water. Well-known shipwrecks in the Baltic Sea are introduced, focusing upon their state of preservation and are compared to finds typically found in the North Sea and the Mediterranean. Microbial decay processes and their identification in both sediments and the water column are also discussed and related to other natural decay processes, as well as human impacts. Finally, a summary of available methods for the in-situ protection of wrecks is presented and a cost-benefit analysis of in-situ preservation versus conventional raising and conservation is given. Contents: 1) Introduction; 2) The Baltic Sea: a unique resource of underwater cultural heritage; 3) Other European waters; 4) The Baltic Sea environment; 5) Wood as material; 6) Wood degraders in the Baltic Sea; 7) The decay process of shipwreck timbers in the Baltic; 8) Spread of shipworm into the Baltic; 9) In-situ preservation of a wreck site; 10) Future research.
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