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NEW: The Geography of Gandhāran Art Proceedings of the Second International Workshop of the Gandhāra Connections Project, University of Oxford, 22nd-23rd March, 2018 edited by Wannaporn Rienjang and Peter Stewart. DOI: 10.32028/9781789691863. Paperback; 203x276mm; xii+186 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (60 plates in colour). (Print RRP £38.00). 533 2019. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789691863. £38.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789691870. Book contents pageDownload

Gandhāran art is usually regarded as a single phenomenon – a unified regional artistic tradition or ‘school’. Indeed it has distinctive visual characteristics, materials, and functions, and is characterized by its extensive borrowings from the Graeco-Roman world. Yet this tradition is also highly varied. Even the superficial homogeneity of Gandhāran sculpture, which constitutes the bulk of documented artistic material from this region in the early centuries AD, belies a considerable range of styles, technical approaches, iconographic choices, and levels of artistic skill.

The geographical variations in Gandhāran art have received less attention than they deserve. Many surviving Gandhāran artefacts are unprovenanced and the difficulty of tracing substantial assemblages of sculpture to particular sites has obscured the fine-grained picture of its artistic geography. Well documented modern excavations at particular sites and areas, such as the projects of the Italian Archaeological Mission in the Swat Valley, have demonstrated the value of looking at sculptures in context and considering distinctive aspects of their production, use, and reuse within a specific locality. However, insights of this kind have been harder to gain for other areas, including the Gandhāran heartland of the Peshawar basin. Even where large collections of artworks can be related to individual sites, the exercise of comparing material within and between these places is still at an early stage. The relationship between the Gandhāran artists or ‘workshops’, particular stone sources, and specific sites is still unclear.

Addressing these and other questions, this second volume of the Gandhāra Connections project at Oxford University’s Classical Art Research Centre presents the proceedings of a workshop held in March 2018. Its aim is to pick apart the regional geography of Gandhāran art, presenting new discoveries at particular sites, textual evidence, and the challenges and opportunities of exploring Gandhāra’s artistic geography.

About the Editors
WANNAPORN RIENJANG is Project Assistant of the Gandhāra Connections Project at the Classical Art Research Centre, Oxford. She completed her doctoral degree in Archaeology at the University of Cambridge on Buddhist relic cult in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Before starting her PhD, she worked as a research assistant for the Masson Project at the Department of Coins and Medals, the British Museum. Her research interests include the art and archaeology of Greater Gandhāra, Buddhist studies, and working technologies of stone containers and beads.

PETER STEWART is Director of the Classical Art Research Centre and Associate Professor of Classical Art and Archaeology at the University of Oxford. He has worked widely in the field of ancient sculpture. His publications include Statues in Roman Society: Representation and Response (2003) and The Social History of Roman Art (2008). Much of his research concerns the relationship between Gandhāran art and Roman sculpture.
Godlike Images: Priestesses in Greek Sculpture by Iphigeneia Leventi. Pages 69-77 from Greek Art in Motion: Studies in honour of Sir John Boardman on the occasion of his 90th Birthday edited by Rui Morais et al.Download

The first almost certain depiction of a priestess in action can be found on the east frieze of the Parthenon. There is general consensus among scholars concerning the identification of the mature female figure in the middle of slab V as the priestess of Athena Polias, shown with her back turned to the man in priestly garment who is dealing with the peplos. Even though the iconographic type of this priestess is a generic one with no evident relation to the sculptural representations of the female deity she serves, also lacking identifying attributes like the temple key or the xoanon of the goddess, her identity is established by the context in which she appears, and especially her interaction with the two female attendants, who are recognised as arrephoroi or kanephoroi. A similar scene can be seen on the early Classical clay Locrian pinakes, where a priestess is depicted with one or more attendants, or with a host of devotees in a ritual performance.
Perspectives on materiality in ancient Egypt – agency, cultural reproduction and change edited by Érika Maynart, Carolina Velloza and Rennan Lemos. Paperback; 203x276mm; iv+110 pages; illustrated throughout with 8 plates in colour. 62 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784919337. £30.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784919344. Book contents pageDownload

Perspectives on materiality in ancient Egypt – agency, cultural reproduction and change expresses the authors’ broad theoretical interest on materiality and how it helps us to understand the crucial role of material culture in ancient Egyptian society in a more complex way. In the volume, mainly young scholars in Brazil, France, Germany and the UK approach the potential of materiality based on several case studies covering a wide range of topics such as Egyptian art, recent perspectives on sex and gender, hierarchies, and the materiality of textual sources and images.

The idea of gathering young scholars to discuss ‘materiality’ first took place in the form of a colloquium organised in São Paulo, but soon after became a more encompassing project aspiring to produce a publication. The editors’ aimed to include researchers from various places, which makes the volume a materialisation of fruitful collaborations between individuals coming from different scholarly traditions. The combination of different ways of looking at the ancient material culture can hopefully contribute to the renovation of theory and practice in Egyptology. The editors believe that the emphasis on diversity— of background histories, national traditions and mind-sets—is one the main elements that can be used to boost new perspectives in a connected, globalised and hopefully less unequal world.
Problems of Chronology in Gandhāran Art Proceedings of the First International Workshop of the Gandhāra Connections Project, University of Oxford, 23rd-24th March, 2017 edited by Wannaporn Rienjang and Peter Stewart. DOI: 10.32028/9781784918552. Paperback; 203x276mm; iv+166 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (56 colour plates). 419 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784918552. £32.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784918569. Book contents pageDownload

Since the beginning of Gandhāran studies in the nineteenth century, chronology has been one of the most significant challenges to the understanding of Gandhāran art. Many other ancient societies, including those of Greece and Rome, have left a wealth of textual sources which have put their fundamental chronological frameworks beyond doubt. In the absence of such sources on a similar scale, even the historical eras cited on inscribed Gandhāran works of art have been hard to place. Few sculptures have such inscriptions and the majority lack any record of find-spot or even general provenance. Those known to have been found at particular sites were sometimes moved and reused in antiquity. Consequently, the provisional dates assigned to extant Gandhāran sculptures have sometimes differed by centuries, while the narrative of artistic development remains doubtful and inconsistent.

Building upon the most recent, cross-disciplinary research, debate and excavation, this volume reinforces a new consensus about the chronology of Gandhāra, bringing the history of Gandhāran art into sharper focus than ever. By considering this tradition in its wider context, alongside contemporary Indian art and subsequent developments in Central Asia, the authors also open up fresh questions and problems which a new phase of research will need to address.

Problems of Chronology in Gandhāran Art is the first publication of the Gandhāra Connections project at the University of Oxford’s Classical Art Research Centre, which has been supported by the Bagri Foundation and the Neil Kreitman Foundation. It presents the proceedings of the first of three international workshops on fundamental questions in the study of Gandhāran art, held at Oxford in March 2017.

About the Editors
WANNAPORN RIENJANG is Project Assistant of the Gandhāra Connections Project at the Classical Art Research Centre, Oxford. She completed her doctoral degree in Archaeology at the University of Cambridge on Buddhist relic cult in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Before starting her PhD, she worked as a research assistant for the Masson Project at the Department of Coins and Medals, the British Museum. Her research interests include the art and archaeology of Greater Gandhāra, Buddhist studies, and working technologies of stone containers and beads.

PETER STEWART is Director of the Classical Art Research Centre and Associate Professor of Classical Art and Archaeology at the University of Oxford. He has worked widely in the field of ancient sculpture. His publications include Statues in Roman Society: Representation and Response (2003) and The Social History of Roman Art (2008). Much of his research concerns the relationship between Gandhāran art and Roman sculpture.

Egyptian Predynastic Anthropomorphic Objects A study of their function and significance in Predynastic burial customs by Ryna Ordynat. iv+120 pages; 101 illustrations presented in colour and black & white (12 colour plates). 45 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784917784. £30.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784917791. Book contents pageDownload

Anthropomorphic objects from the Egyptian Predynastic have been a topic of frequent study and debate, from the time they were first excavated until today. These objects, including human figurines, hippopotamus tusks, tag amulets and combs carved with the human image, continue to fascinate and perplex scholars today. Objects such as these form part of the extensive and distinctive iconographic imagery of Predynastic Egypt, and are often interpreted solely in the context of their symbolic or iconographic significance.

The aim of this study is to examine these anthropomorphic objects in terms of their original context in order to determine what role they played in Predynastic burials – a useful method, as most of these objects are found in graves. A database comprising all provenanced anthropomorphic Predynastic objects and their placement in the grave, in addition to the details of each grave, has been composed in order to conduct a detailed analysis. The analysis is geared to answer the question of whether it is possible to determine the function of these objects from the available data, and if so, what the results could tell us about burial practices and rituals in Predynastic Egypt.

It became clear from the results that the context, especially the specific placement of the object in the grave, can reflect significantly the meaning and function of anthropomorphic objects. The placement and function seems to have depended on the type of object: for instance, figurines had different placements and meanings to tusks and tags. Ultimately, it appears that anthropomorphic objects, especially figurines, were personal items with which the deceased were identified and buried by their relations and friends. They may have served as magical or protective items, or as representations of ancestors or the deceased individuals themselves. This conclusion is significant, as it confirms the previous assumptions about the functions of anthropomorphic objects in Predynastic graves through a thorough analysis of available data, making a contribution to our understanding of Predynastic burial rituals.
Imágenes de centauros en los vasos áticos de figuras negras y de figuras rojas Siglos VIII A.C. – IV A.C. by María Herranz. 298 pages; 15 graphs, 124 tables (all in colour). Spanish text with English summary.. 38 2017. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784916831. £54.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784916848. Book contents pageDownload

The centaur, a hybrid being with the body of horse and a human head and torso, first appeared in the mountains of Thessaly. This was the Greek horse-breeding region and it seemed natural for the centaur to have originated there, in the heart of this exclusive heritage of the landed gentry. Centaurs belonged to the spheres of heroic mythology, with clear ties to the values of the aristocracy.

This book is composed of a catalogue divided into nine chapters. Each chapter comprises catalogue entries for a number of black-figure and red-figure Attic vases. The division into chapters is based on the various types of centaurs and different conflicts, either among themselves or against a hero. In addition to the catalogue is a chapter on images and statistics. Each of these nine chapters corresponds to a section of catalogue entries and statistics, as the information refers to two examples in each section, one in black figures and another in red figures. The highlighted examples illustrate the variety of different vase types (amphorae, lekythoi, etc.) and their chronology (550-500 BC, 500-450 BC). The statistics are likewise divided into black and red figures, and various themes, such as the centaur Pholos and the banquet, or Herakles and Nessos. For each of these themes or groups of examples, a table is given showing the number of vases (amphorae, lekythoi, etc.) and their place in the chronology (550-500 BC, 500-450 BC, etc.).

Large Scale Rhodian Sculpture of Hellenistic and Roman Times Η ΜΕΓΑΛΗ ΡΟΔΙΑΚΗ ΠΛΑΣΤΙΚΗ ΤΩΝ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΣΤΙΚΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΡΩΜΑΪΚΩΝ ΧΡΟΝΩΝ by Kalliope Bairami. xviii+864 pages; 222 plates, 23 in colour. Greek text with 19 page English summary. 25 2017. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784915766. £90.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784915773. Book contents pageDownload

The Hellenistic society of the Rhodian metropolis, a naval aristocracy (Gabrielsen), dedicated bronze statues of their members in the sanctuaries and public buildings and used marble and -occasionally-lartios lithos to carve portrait-statues originally for funerary use and in a later period also for honorific purposes, figures of deities and decorative sculpture for the houses and the parks. The artists, local and itinerant, from Athens, the islands and the Asia Minor, established artistic workshops on Rhodes, some of them active for three centuries and for more than one generation. The impact of Rhodian art is evident on the islands of the Aegean and the cities of Asia Minor, due to the expansion of the Rhodian Peraia. Together with Pergamon, Rhodes emerges as a productive artistic centre of the Hellenistic era, creating statuary types and combining them with landscape elements. The radiance of its art is evident in the late Hellenistic period in Rome, the new capital of the world, where the Rhodian artists create mythological statuary groups set in grottoes.

This volume presents the large-scale Rhodian sculpture of the Hellenistic and Roman period through the publication of sixty unpublished sculptures of life size or larger than life size, together with forty-five sculptures already published. The sculptures are grouped according to their statuary type (gods, mortals and portraits), while those unable to be firmly identified due to their fragmentary condition are grouped under the category ‘uncertain identification’. The presentation of the sculptures is further supplemented by a technical description and an analysis of stylistic characteristics according to chronological development. Excavation data, wherever available, are also provided.

This book is also available to buy in paperback priced £80.00.

Access Archaeology: This imprint is designed to make archaeological research accessible to all and to present a low-cost (or no-cost) publishing solution for academics from all over the world. Material ranges from theses, conference proceedings, catalogues of archaeological material, excavation reports and beyond. We provide type-setting guidance and templates for authors to prepare material themselves designed to be made available for free online via our Open Access platform and to supply in-print to libraries and academics worldwide at a reasonable price point. Click here to learn more about publishing in Access Archaeology.

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The Death of the Maiden in Classical Athens Ο ΘΑΝΑΤΟΣ ΤΗΣ ΑΓΑΜΟΥ ΚΟΡΗΣ ΣΤΗΝ ΑΘΗΝΑ ΤΩΝ ΚΛΑΣΙΚΩΝ ΧΡΟΝΩΝ by Katia Margariti. xlviii+636 pages; 105 plates in colour and black & white. Text in Greek with extensive 63 page english summary. 23 2017. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784915469. £90.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784915476. Book contents pageDownload

The present study examines the death of maidens in classical Athens, combining the study of Attic funerary iconography with research on classical Attic maiden burials, funerary inscriptions, tragic plays, as well as the relevant Attic myths.

The iconography of funerary reliefs focuses on the idealized image of the deceased maiden, as well as the powerful bonds of love and kinship that unite her with the members of her family, whereas the iconography of vases emphasizes the premature death of the maiden, the pain of loss and mourning felt by her family, as well as the observance of the indispensable funerary rites concerning her burial and ‘tomb cult’. Particularly interesting is the fact that the ‘traditional’ theory according to which the loutrophoros marked the graves of the unmarried dead alone has been proven non valid.

The study of classical Attic maiden burials indicates that the prematurely dead maidens were buried as children who didn’t live long enough to reach adulthood.

The untimely death of maidens in Attic drama and mythology is beneficial to the family or the city. In great contrast to that, the premature death of real - life Athenian maidens was a terrible disaster for the girls’ families, as well as the polis itself. Despite this, the iconography of dead maidens in classical Athens is in accordance with the ‘image’ of the deceased maidens presented by funerary epigrams, tragedy, and mythology. It has to be noted though, that the same is not true in the case of maiden burials.

Access Archaeology: This imprint is designed to make archaeological research accessible to all and to present a low-cost (or no-cost) publishing solution for academics from all over the world. Material ranges from theses, conference proceedings, catalogues of archaeological material, excavation reports and beyond. We provide type-setting guidance and templates for authors to prepare material themselves designed to be made available for free online via our Open Access platform and to supply in-print to libraries and academics worldwide at a reasonable price point. Click here to learn more about publishing in Access Archaeology.

Intellectual and Spiritual Expression of Non-Literate Peoples Proceedings of the XVII UISPP World Congress (1–7 September, Burgos, Spain): Volume 1 / Session A20 edited by Emmanuel Anati. xiv+386 pages; illustrated throughout in black and white. 212 2016. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784912819. £55.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784912826. Book contents pageDownload

This volume presents the proceedings of the session ‘Intellectual and Spiritual Expression of Non-literate Peoples’ part of the XVII World UISPP Congress, held in Burgos (Spain), the 4th September 2014. The session brought together experts from various disciplines to share experience and scientific approaches for a better understanding of human creativity and behaviour in prehistory.
Megaliths of Easter Island Taken from Around the Petit-Chasseur Site in Sion (Valais, Switzerland) and New Approaches to the Bell Beaker Culture by Nicolas Cauwe. Pages 321-330.Download

In 1992, a thesis came to light, sustaining the collapse of Easter Island’s culture after a change in the landscape. This idea was more than a simple hypothesis: the demonstration of the deforestation of the island was the basis of this reflection. The solution presented here appears radically contradictory; however it is not more than an amendment of the previous one: twenty years ago, understanding of environmental change contributed fundamentally to knowledge; since then, the dossier has been enriched with the history of the island’s monuments. Now we know that the statue platforms never were destroyed, but conscientiously dismantled and converted into necropolis. Likewise it is demonstrable that the volcano-quarry (Rano Raraku), where the moai were sculpted, was not abandoned in mid-operation, but voluntarily turned into an assembly of human figures. The absence of great famines on Rapa Nui during the 17th and the 18th centuries is shown by precise analyses. The very scarce presence of weapons of war is a fact deduced from technological studies. Finally, critical examination of the myths and legends shows that these texts do not record historical events, but the view which Easter Islanders at the end of the 19th century took of their past, after they had been irredeemably cut off from it by circumstances beyond their control. It is therefore incontestable that the last generations of Rapanui before the arrival of the white man had begun a deep re-structuring of their politico-religious system. Starting from this new documentary basis, we must look for new hypotheses. That one proposed here, namely a globalisation of island’s society giving new visibility to the god Makemake to the detriment of the traditional pantheon, which was placed under a taboo, seems provisionally the most credible, since it accounts for all the elements recorded so far. This mutation of Rapanui’s society was in progress at the time of the arrival of the 18th century explorers. They were not aware of it, but no one could have been on first discovering a hitherto unknown people. The first step of new arrivals is to describe the present; the underlying dynamic can only be discerned later, with hindsight.

This paper is taken from Around the Petit-Chasseur Site in Sion (Valais, Switzerland) and New Approaches to the Bell Beaker Culture: Proceedings of the International Conference (Sion, Switzerland – October 27th – 30th 2011) edited by Marie Besse, Archaeopress 2014. Click on the PDF to read the full paper online, or download to your device. The full volume is available in paperback here.
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