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NEW: Barbaric Splendour: The Use of Image Before and After Rome edited by Toby F. Martin with Wendy Morrison. Paperback; 203x276mm; 152 pages; 38 figures (30 colour pages). 119 2020. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789696592. £35.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789696608. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Barbaric Splendour: the use of image before and after Rome comprises a collection of essays comparing late Iron Age and Early Medieval art. Though this is an unconventional approach, there are obvious grounds for comparison. Images from both periods revel in complex compositions in which it is hard to distinguish figural elements from geometric patterns. Moreover, in both periods, images rarely stood alone and for their own sake. Instead, they decorated other forms of material culture, particularly items of personal adornment and weaponry. The key comparison, however, is the relationship of these images to those of Rome. Fundamentally, the book asks what making images meant on the fringe of an expanding or contracting empire, particularly as the art from both periods drew heavily from – but radically transformed – imperial imagery.

About the Editors
Toby Martin currently works as a lecturer at Oxford University’s Department for Continuing Education, where he specialises in adult and online education. His research concentrates on theoretical and interpretative aspects of material culture in Early Medieval Europe. Toby has also worked as a field archaeologist and project officer in the commercial archaeological sector and continues to work as a small finds specialist.

Wendy Morrison currently works for the Chilterns Conservation Board managing the NLHF funded Beacons of the Past Hillforts project, the UK’s largest high-res archaeological LiDAR survey. She also is Senior Associate Tutor for Archaeology at the Oxford University Department for Continuing Education. Wendy’s research areas are Prehistoric European Archaeology and Landscape Archaeology. She has over a decade’s excavation experience in Southern Britain, the Channel Islands, and India.
NEW: On the Origins of the Cartouche and Encircling Symbolism in Old Kingdom Pyramids by David Ian Lightbody. Paperback; 203x276mm; 100 pages; 47 figures. 118 2020. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789696578. £25.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789696585. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

On the Origins of the Cartouche and Encircling Symbolism in Old Kingdom Pyramids is a treatise on the subject of encircling symbolism in pharaonic monumental tomb architecture. The study focuses on the Early Dynastic Period and the Old Kingdom of ancient Egypt; from the first dynasty through the sixth. During that time, encircling symbolism was developed most significantly and became most influential. The cartouche also became the principal symbol of the pharaoh for the first time. This work demonstrates how the development of the cartouche was closely related to the monumental encircling symbolism incorporated into the architectural designs of the Old Kingdom pyramids. By employing a new architectural style, the pyramid, and a new iconographic symbol, the cartouche, the pharaoh sought to elevate his status above that of the members of his powerful court. These iconic new emblems emphasized and protected the pharaoh in life, and were retained in the afterlife. By studying the available evidence, the new and meaningful link between the two artistic media; iconographic and architectural, is catalogued, understood, and traced out through time.

Table of Contents
David Ian Lightbody, PhD., BEng (Hons), is an archaeologist with a special interest in the origins of architectural and scientific principles, most notably in the ancient Egyptian and Greek cultures. In 2016 he founded the Journal of Ancient Egyptian Architecture (JAEA) with co-editor Franck Monnier. He has published several journal articles, a monograph, and most recently, the Great Pyramid Haynes Operations Manual (2,590 B.C. onwards).
FORTHCOMING: Megaliths and Geology: Megálitos e Geologia MEGA-TALKS 2: 19-20 November 2015 (Redondo, Portugal) edited by Rui Boaventura†, Rui Mataloto and André Pereira. Paperback; 203x276mm; 196pp; 114 figures, 10 tables. Print RRP £38.00. 117 2020. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789696417. £38.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789696424. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

The MegaGeo project, under the direction of the late Rui Boaventura, aimed to analyse the raw material economy in the construction of megalithic tombs in multiple territories, showing the representation of several prehistoric communities that raised them and their relationship with the surrounding areas.

Following the meeting of the previous year, it was decided to hold Mega-Talks 2, which brought together national and international experts who have developed work related to Megalithism and Geology, in its various perspectives, from the funerary depositions to the raw material construction of the tombs, as indicators of mobility and interaction with the surrounding physical environment.

Megaliths and Geology: Megálitos e Geologia presents contributions from Mega-Talks 2, held in Redondo, Portugal, on 19-20 November 2015.

About the Editors
Rui Boaventura† (1971-2016) obtained a PhD in Prehistory from the School of Arts and Humanities (University of Lisbon) in 2010. As a Post-Doc researcher at UNIARQ (Center for Archaeology, University of Lisbon), in 2013 he headed the MEGAGEO Project: Moving megaliths in the Neolithic. He passed away in 2016, victim of a prolonged illness.

Rui Mataloto Pereira graduated from the School of Arts and Humanities (University of Lisbon) in 1997, before completing his Master’s degree at the same school in 2004. Over the past 15 years, he has directed studies on the Megalithism of the South slope of Serra d’Ossa.

André Pereira Pereira graduated in History, Archaeological Variant, from the School of Arts and Humanities (University of Lisbon) in 2003, and post-graduated in Science and Technology Management and Policies at Nova University (FCSH) in 2020. He currently works for UNIARQ (Centre for Archaeology, University of Lisbon), in Science Management in relation to archaeology.
NEW: EurASEAA14 Volume II: Material Culture and Heritage Papers from the Fourteenth International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists edited by Helen Lewis. Paperback; 203x276mm; 238 pages; 164 figures, 27 tables. 115 2020. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789695939. £45.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789695946. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

EurASEAA14: Material Culture and Heritage is the second of two volumes comprising papers originally presented at the EurASEAA14 (European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists) conference in 2012, updated for publication. The aim of the EurASEAA is to facilitate communication between different disciplines, to present current work in the field, and to stimulate future research. This international initiative aims to foster international scholarly cooperation in the field of Southeast Asian archaeology, art history and philology.

This volume focuses substantially on topics under the broad themes of archaeology and heritage, material culture, environmental archaeology, osteoarchaeology, historic and prehistoric archaeology, ethnoarchaeology, and long-distance contact, trade and exchange.

About the Editor
Helen Lewis is an associate professor at University College Dublin School of Archaeology. Her research in Southeast Asia has mostly focused on cave sites in Laos, Malaysian Borneo, and the Philippine island of Palawan, where she co-directs the Palawan Island Palaeohistory Research Project. She chaired the EurASEAA14 Conference in Dublin in 2012.

Table of Contents (provisional)
Editorial introduction to EurASEAA14 Volumes 1 and 2 – Helen Lewis ;
Ceramics from the Musi riverbed – John N. Miksic ;
The social dynamics of porcelain trade in the eleventh to sixteenth centuries CE Philippines: a chemical composition study – Rory Dennison and Laura Junker ;
The kilns of Myinkaba – for pottery or glass? – Don Hein and W. Ross H. Ramsay ;
The iron smelting technology of the Bujang Valley, Malaysia – Naizatul Akma Mokhtar and Mokhtar Saidin ;
Guide to understanding Khmer stoneware characteristics, Angkor, Cambodia – Chhay Rachna, Tho Thon and Em Socheata ;
New data on the chronology of Khmer stonewares – Armand Desbat ;
The conical rollers of Ban Non Wat, northeastern Thailand – Christina Sewall ;
Late Pleistocene/Holocene ecological and cultural transition in the Philippines – Jonathan H. Kress ;
Middle Pleistocene sites in Bukit Bunuh, Lenggong, Perak, Malaysia – Nor Khairunnisa Talib, Mokhtar Saidin and Jeffrey Abdullah ;
Metabolism, mythology, magic or metaphor? Animals in the rock art of Thailand – Lauren Winch ;
Tooth blackening and betel nut chewing at the Early Iron Age sites of Gò Ô Chùa (Vietnam) and Prohear (Cambodia) – Simone Krais, Michael Francken and Andreas Reinecke ;
The cultural and biological context of the Song Keplek 5 specimen, East Java: implications for living conditions and human-environment interactions during the later Holocene – Sofwan Noerwidi, Harry Widianto and Truman Simanjuntak ;
Probable prehistoric Southeast Asian influences in New Guinea? New archaeological and anthropological approaches to former axioms – Henry Dosedla ;
Ancient settlement in the lakes area of East Java Province, Indonesia: the potential for archaeological research with public benefits – Gunadi Kasnowihardjo ;
The relevance of archaeology to contemporary concerns: the Department of Agriculture of the Philippines and ancient foodways – Michelle S. Eusebio ;
Toward an understanding of cultural heritage and sustainable management: a case study from Phrae Province, Thailand – Mizuho Ikeda ;
Bibliography
NEW: EurASEAA14 Volume I: Ancient and Living Traditions Papers from the Fourteenth International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists: Volume I edited by Helen Lewis. Paperback; 203x276mm; 244 pages; 170 figures, 13 tables. (Print RRP: £45.00). 114 2020. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789695052. £45.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789695069. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

EurASEAA14: Ancient and Living Traditions is the first of two volumes comprising papers originally presented at the EurASEAA14 (European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists) conference in 2012, updated for publication. The aim of the EurASEAA is to facilitate communication between different disciplines, to present current work in the field, and to stimulate future research. This international initiative aims to foster international scholarly cooperation in the field of Southeast Asian archaeology, art history and philology.

This volume focuses substantially on topics under the broad themes of archaeology and art history, epigraphy, philology, historic archaeology, ethnography, ethnoarchaeology, ethnomusicology, materials studies, and long-distance trade and exchange.

About the Editor
Helen Lewis is an associate professor at University College Dublin School of Archaeology. Her research in Southeast Asia has mostly focused on cave sites in Laos, Malaysian Borneo, and the Philippine island of Palawan, where she co-directs the Palawan Island Palaeohistory Research Project. She chaired the EurASEAA14 Conference in Dublin in 2012.

Table of Contents (provisional)
Editorial introduction to EurASEAA14 Volumes 1 and 2 – Helen Lewis ;
Events in the Life of the Buddha: Pagan sculptures in the Hermitage collection and their context in the art of mainland Southeast Asia – Olga Deshpande and Pamela Gutman† ;
A note on two peculiar stone pedestals in the form of atlas dwarfish figures (yakṣas) – Valérie Zaleski ;
Representations of the female in Thai Buddhist manuscript paintings – Jana Igunma ;
Prajñāpāramitā in thirteenth century Java and Sumatra: two sculptures disconnected by textile designs – Lesley S Pullen ;
Islamic calligraphy, re-interpreted by local genius in Javanese mosque ornamentation, Indonesia (fifteenth century CE to present) – Hee Sook Lee-Niinioja ;
Understanding the Champa polity from archaeological and epigraphic evidence – a critical stocktaking – Bishnupriya Basak ;
A tale of two Khmer bronzecasting families, the Chhem and the Khat: how traditional bronzecasting revived in the area around Phnom Penh after the Khmer Rouge (1975-1979), and the expansion and modernization of that tradition in the 1990s: a preliminary report – Jane P. Allison ;
The history and distribution of the free-reed mouth-organ in SE Asia – Roger Blench ;
The ethnoarchaeology of Southeast Asian foragers: resiliency in Ata indigenous knowledge and cultural expression in the pre-Hispanic and Hispanic Philippines – Larissa Smith ;
Megalithic rituals of the Maram tribe of Manipur – Binodini Devi Potshangbam ;
The hidden, unique, bronze battleship from Mt. Dobo, East Flores, Indonesia, assumed to date to the Dong-So’n period – Herwig Zahorka† ;
Kattigara of Claudius Ptolemy and Óc Eo: the issue of trade between the Roman Empire and Funan in the Graeco-Roman written sources – Kasper Hanus and Emilia Smagur ;
Cowries in southwestern China, and trade with India and Myanmar in ancient and modern times – Xiao Minghua ;
The source of the seashells and ivories found in southwest China in the pre-Qin Period – Duan Yu ;
Southeast Asia and the development of advanced sail types across the Indian Ocean – Tom Hoogervorst ;
Mediaeval Fansur: a long-lost harbor in Aceh – Edmund Edwards McKinnon and Nurdin A.R. ;
‘The world turned upside down’: sago-palm processors in northeast India and the origins of Chinese civilization – Roger Blench ;
Bibliography
NEW: Paisajes en un sector de la Quebrada de Humahuaca durante la Etapa Agroalfarera Arqueología de Tumbaya (Jujuy, Argentina) by Agustina Scaro. Paperback; 203x276mm; 304pp; 216 figures, 58 plates. Spanish text. Print RRP £52.00.. 116 2020. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789694895. £52.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789694901. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Quebrada de Humahuaca is the center of important and diverse continuous cultural developments and presents places that are key references in the archaeology of Argentina. However, numerous spaces, such as Tumbaya, have not yet been the subject of systematic and intensive research. There, the study began as a response to the interest of the local aboriginal community to know the pre-Hispanic past of the area. Tumbaya, in the central-south sector of Quebrada de Humahuaca, is a particular space since its environmental and geomorphological characteristics have allowed important interactions between the groups that inhabited the area and those of other regions, added to a social dynamic that gives a distinctive character to the sector. Within this framework, the landscapes that were configured in the central-south sector of Quebrada during the agricultural-ceramist period were studied, concerning its social identity and the links it may have had with other sectors of the circumpuneña area. The landscape approach, understood from a comprehensive perspective, allowed consideration of the natural, social and symbolic environment of the inhabitants of the area throughout its occupational history, including the materiality generated and manipulated to configure the landscape and define a particular identity. Thus, the landscape was conceived as a dynamic space, socially built by the daily activities, beliefs and value system of the social actors who carry out an act of memory that is constitutive of both their identity, their conception and legitimation of the territory.

About the Author
Agustina Scaro, Assistant Researcher of the National Council of Scientific and Technological Research of Argentina, studies Landscape and Materiality issues in the Central-South Andes. She has worked in Quebrada de Humahuaca (northern Argentina) for more than a decade, with the aim of understanding local pre-Inca societies and the impact of Inca domination on them from different lines of evidence.

Spanish description: La Quebrada de Humahuaca ha sido espacio de importantes y diversos desarrollos culturales continuados y presenta lugares que son referencias claves en la arqueología de Argentina. Sin embargo, numerosos espacios, como Tumbaya, aún no han sido objeto de una investigación sistemática e intensiva. Allí, el estudio se inició frente al interés de la comunidad aborigen local de conocer el pasado prehispánico de la zona. Tumbaya, en el sector centro-sur de la Quebrada de Humahuaca, es un espacio particular ya que sus características ambientales y geomorfológicas han permitido importantes interacciones entre los grupos que habitaron la zona y los de otras regiones, sumada a una dinámica social que dan un carácter diferenciador al sector. En este marco, se ha buscado comprender los paisajes que se configuraron en el sector centro-sur de la Quebrada durante la etapa agroalfarera, en relación con su identidad social y las vinculaciones que pudo tener con otros sectores del área circumpuneña. El enfoque del paisaje, entendido desde una perspectiva abarcadora, permitió considerar el entorno natural, social y simbólico de los habitantes de la zona a lo largo de su historia ocupacional, incluyendo la materialidad generada y manipulada para configurar el paisaje y definir una identidad particular. Así, se concibió al paisaje como un espacio dinámico, socialmente construido por las actividades diarias, creencias y sistema de valores de los actores sociales quienes al habitar el paisaje, llevan a cabo un acto de memoria que es constitutivo tanto de su identidad como de su concepción y legitimación del territorio.

Agustina Scaro: Actual Investigadora Asistente del Concejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas de Argentina, Agustina Scaro estudia temas de Paisaje y Materialidad en los Andes Centro-Sur. La autora ha trabajado en la Quebrada de Humahuaca (norte de Argentina) por más de una déc
NEW: Before/After: Transformation, Change, and Abandonment in the Roman and Late Antique Mediterranean edited by Paolo Cimadomo, Rocco Palermo, Raffaella Pappalardo and Raffaella Pierobon Benoit. Paperback; 203x276mm; 126 pages; 39 figures (8 plates in colour). Print RRP: £30.00. 112 2020. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789695991. £30.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789696004. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Before/After explores various aspects related to transformation and change in the Roman and Late Antique world through the archaeological and historical evidence. The seven chapters of the volume range from the evolution of settlement patterns to spatial re-configuration after abandonment processes. Geographically the volume aims to cover – through case studies – the enlarged Roman world from Spain, to Cyprus, from the Rhine area borderland to the Red Sea. The book is the result of a workshop organized as part of the Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference, held in Rome during March 2016.

About the Editors
Paolo Cimadomo is a Post-Doc Research Fellow at the University of Naples ‘Federico II’ (Italy). His main research interests are the Hellenistic and Roman Near East. He has worked in different areas of the Eastern Mediterranean (Israel, Jordan, Syria, Turkey) and is the author of The Southern Levant during the first centuries of the Roman rule (64 BCE-135 CE) (Oxbow Books, 2019) ;

Rocco Palermo is a Researcher and Lecturer at the University of Groningen (Netherlands), and Associate Director of the Erbil Plain Archaeological Survey (Iraqi Kurdistan, Harvard University). He has carried out extensive fieldwork in the Middle East (Syria, Jordan, Iraq), where he explores the formation and development of imperial landscapes through the archaeological record. He is the author of On the Edge of Empires. North Mesopotamia during the Roman Period (Routledge, 2019). ;

Raffaella Pappalardo obtained her PhD in Ancient History from University of Naples ‘Federico II’ (Italy). As a pottery specialist she has taken part in many archaeological projects in Syria, Turkey, Jordan and Lebanon, where she was in charge of the ceramic assemblages. Her publication record reflects her interest in the socio-cultural role of pottery in the ancient world, and specifically in the period between the Late Antique and the Islamic world. ;

Raffaella Pierobon Benoit is associate member of Arts and Sciences Academy of Naples (Italy), and was Professor of Archaeology of the Roman Provinces at the University of Naples ‘Federico II’ until 2015. She has carried out extensive fieldwork in Italy and directed archaeological projects in France (Anderitum/Javols) and Turkey (Mandalya Gulf Survey). She was Associate Director of the Italian Archaeological Expedition at Tell Barry (Syria) from 1989 to 2004, and Project Director since 2005.
NEW: The Neglected Goat: A New Method to Assess the Role of the Goat in the English Middle Ages by Lenny Salvagno. Paperback; 203x276mm; 888 pages; 744 figures, 351 tables (colour throughout). 113 2020. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789696295. £120.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789696301. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Distinguishing between the bones of sheep and goats is a notorious challenge in zooarchaeology. Several methods have been proposed to facilitate this task, largely based on macro-morphological traits.

This approach, which is routinely adopted by zooarchaeologists, although still valuable, has also been shown to have limitations: morphological discriminant traits can differ in different sheep/ goat populations and a correct identification is highly dependent upon experience, as well as the availability of appropriate reference collections and the degree to which a researcher is prepared to ‘risk’ an identification.

The Neglected Goat provides a new, more objective and transparent methodology, based on a combination of morphological and biometrical analyses, to distinguish between sheep and goat post cranial bones. Additionally, on the basis of the newly proposed approach, it reassesses the role of the goat in medieval England.

There are several historical and archaeological questions concerning the role of this animal that have so far remained unanswered: why is the goat commonly recorded in the Domesday Book, when it appears to be so scarce in the contemporary archaeological record? Is the goat under-represented in the archaeological record or over-represented in the Domesday Book? Why is this animal, when identified in English medieval animal bone assemblages, almost exclusively represented by horncores?

Through the investigation of a number of English sheep and goat medieval assemblages, this study sheds light on these questions, and suggests that the goat was indeed rarer than the Domesday Book suggests.

About the Author
Lenny Salvagno has an Honours Degree in Cultural Heritage with Archaeology from the University of Parma (Italy) and a PhD in zooarchaeology from the University of Sheffield (UK). At Sheffield, she also completed a two-year Post-Doc (funded by the Gerda Henkel Stiftung) focussing on changes in pig husbandry during the Late Medieval-Early Modern transition in England. She is now an Honorary Research Fellow at the Department of Archaeology in Sheffield and a Marie Skłodowska-Curie Post- Doctoral Fellow at the Institute of Palaeoanatomy, domestication research and veterinary history, at the Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich (Germany). Lenny’s main interests are in animal domestication and husbandry intensification, the use of animals in medieval and post-medieval Britain, as well as Bronze and Iron Age Italy, ritual deposits, and the use of statistics and geometric morphometrics in zooarchaeology. She is also passiona oarchaeology and the presentation of this field of study to the general public.
Eastern Roman Mounted Archers and Extraordinary Medico-Surgical Interventions at Paliokastro in Thasos Island during the ProtoByzantine Period The Historical and Medical History Records and the Archaeo-Anthropological Evidence by Anagnostis P. Agelarakis. Paperback; 203x276mm; iv+50 pages; 28 figures, 1 table (colour throughout). 111 2020. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789696011. £20.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789696028. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Procopius’ History of the Wars, and the Strategikon offer important aspects of Eastern Roman military tactical changes adopted against their enemies that brought the mounted archer-lancer to domineer in the synthesis of the army, along with concise descriptions of their training, panoply, and effectiveness in the battlefield during the later ProtoByzantine period. Yet, evidence in the archaeo-anthropological records of these highly specialized military members has remained elusive.

A recent archaeological discovery at the strategically positioned, upland, site of Paliokastro in Thasos island, Greece, and the subsequent study of the human skeletal remains interred in four monumental funerary contexts, in a dedicated naiskos building, provide for the first time through the archaeological record of the region a unique insight of the mounted archers and their female kin during the turbulent ProtoByzantine period. The interdisciplinary study of the anthropological materials focusing on skeletal developmental, acquired skeleto-muscular manifestations and skeleto-anatomical changes recovered valuable evidentiary data on aspects of their in vivo long-term training and preparation, traumatisms and pathologies along with extraordinary traces of cranial and infra-cranial surgical interventions and medical regimens by the hands of a most experienced surgeon.

In conjunction with the archaeological and anthropological evidence, historical and medical history records are integrated aiming toward a nexus with the human dynamics that transpired at Paliokastro within the context of the catastrophic consequences of the ‘barbarian’ invasions in the Aegean Thraco-Macedonia, and the ravages afforded by the Justinian plague during the later component of the ProtoByzantine period.

About the Author
Anagnostis P. Agelarakis is Professor of Anthropology in the Department of History at Adelphi University in New York. He studied Classical Archaeology and European Ethnology as an undergraduate, and as graduate Environmental Studies at Lund University and Lund Polytechnic Institute in Sweden. He holds a M. Phil. and Ph.D. (1989) in Anthropology from Columbia University, New York.
Pottery of Manqabad A Selected Catalogue of the Ceramic Assemblage from the Monastery of ‘Abba Nefer’ at Asuyt (Egypt) by Ilaria Incordino. Paperback; 203x276mm; 128 pages; fully illustrated catalogue in colour. 110 2020. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789695137. £30.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789695144. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Pottery of Manqabad presents a catalogue of selected pottery from the monastic site of Manqabad (Asyut, Egypt), which has, since 2011, been the object of an ongoing study and conservation project at the University of Naples ‘L’Orientale’ (UNIOR). The ceramic material, dated to the Late Antique Period, derives mostly from the SCA warehouse of el-Ashmunein, where it was kept soon after its accidental discovery in 1965. About 40 items derive from the surface collection and survey conducted on the site during the last fieldwork season (2018). The typologies identified include the most relevant Byzantine classes and a particular link with production from the Middle Egypt region. Part of the field survey was devoted to the analysis of the pottery material still in situ, found in the Northern Sector of the site where a 230m long row of monastic housing units is located. Further investigations will hopefully support the hypothesis of a local pottery production area, which could be identified in a large ‘dump’ at the southern end of the site. More generally, the analysis of the ceramics from Manqabad has underlined the undoubtedly high cultural level of the local monastic community, which can be deduced also from the textual, architectural and wall depiction evidence from the site. Manqabad was largely unknown to the scientific community, but since the first season of work by the Italian-Egyptian project, it has emerged as an important venue for the religious development of Coptic culture between the second half of the Vth to the end of the VIII- early IXth century AD.

About the author
Ilaria Incordino is Research Fellow and Adjunct Professor of Egyptology (BA) at the University of Naples ‘L’Orientale’ (UNIOR). Since 2011 she has been Deputy Director of the Italian-Egyptian Project of Study and Conservation of the Monastery of Manqabad, Asuyt, Egypt (UNIOR, Rome University, SCA), in charge of the study of the Late Antique pottery. She was promoter of several academic events at UNIOR: the Summer School ‘Pottery of the Nile Valley. Classification, documentation and new technology of analysis’ (2019), the ‘Current Research in Egyptology conference’ (2017), the MA in ‘Egyptology: Research Methods and Technology’ (2010) and the ‘First Neapolitan Congress of Egyptology’ (2008). In 2016 she was Curator of the new exposition of the Egyptian Collection of the National Archaeological Museum in Naples (MANN). She was member of the UNIOR excavations in the Eastern Central Desert (UNIOR, Helwan University, Cairo University) and at Mersa/Wadi Gawasis (UNIOR, Boston University).
Las relaciones comerciales marítimas entre Andalucía occidental y el Mediterráneo central en el II milenio a.C. by Mercedes de Caso Bernal. Paperback; 203x276mm; 140 pages; 30 figures (27 pages in colour). Spanish text. 109 2020. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789695113. £35.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789695120. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

This volume reflects on the unique status of the Western Mediterranean in the Bronze Age, considering the independence of its development and the existence of an indigenous maritime trade. It looks at ways to establish a chronology of the period that is not based solely on ceramic typologies, and aims to clarify the cultural exclusion to which the Lower Guadalquivir is subjected.

Tres son los principales problemas que se abordan para la Edad del Bronce en el Mediterráneo Occidental: La independencia en su desarrollo. La realidad de un comercio marítimo autóctono y la existencia de una cultura con tintes supraregionales. A los que se suman otros dos: Establecer una cronología del periodo que no se deba únicamente a las tipologías cerámicas, y esclarecer la exclusión cultural a la que es sometida el Bajo Guadalquivir, en la Península Ibérica.

La Geografía Física y la Humana son las bases en la que se apoya toda la investigación. En ellas se sumergen los análisis de las culturas en estudio y sus relaciones comerciales a través de la arqueología. La climatología dará explicación a la cronología y a los comportamientos socioeconómicos producidos, pudiéndose realizar un estudio sobre el tipo de sociedad existente o los motivos de las diferentes inauguraciones y clausuras de las poblaciones.

Mercedes de Caso Bernal, doctora internacional en Historia y Arqueología Marítima. Ha participado en varias investigaciones en Italia y proyectos nacionales e internacionales. La tesis doctoral ha abordado la Edad del Bronce en el Mediterráneo Occidental, siendo el caballo moderno autóctono el tema de su investigación posdoctoral en el que profundiza, al ser entendido como elemento de prestigio comercial para el mismo periodo cronológico.
Digging into the Dark Ages Early Medieval Public Archaeologies edited by Howard Williams and Pauline Magdalene Clarke. Paperback; 203x276mm; 368 pages; 162 illustrations (138 pages in colour). 108 2020. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789695274. £55.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789695281. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

What does the ‘Dark Ages’ mean in contemporary society? Tackling public engagements through archaeological fieldwork, heritage sites and museums, fictional portrayals and art, and increasingly via a broad range of digital media, this is the first-ever dedicated collection exploring the public archaeology of the Early Middle Ages (5th–11th centuries AD).

Digging into the Dark Ages builds on debates which took place at the 3rd University of Chester Archaeology Student Conference hosted by the Grosvenor Museum, Chester, 13 December 2017. It comprises original perspectives from students integrated with fresh research by heritage practitioners and academics. The book also includes four interviews offering perspectives on key dimensions of early medieval archaeology’s public intersections. By critically ‘digging into’ the ‘Dark Ages’, this book provides an introduction to key concepts and debates, a rich range of case studies, and a solid platform for future research.

About the Editors
Professor Howard Williams is Professor of Archaeology at the University of Chester and researches mortuary archaeology, archaeology and memory, the history of archaeology and public archaeology. He regularly writes an academic blog: Archaeodeath.

Pauline Magdalene Clarke graduated with a BA (Hons) degree in Archaeology with History in 2018, and an MA Past Landscapes and Environments in 2019, both from the University of Chester. Her MA dissertation focussed on the taphonomy of plant macrofossils.
Piazza Armerina L'area nord dell'insediamento medievale presso la Villa del Casale edited by Carmela Bonanno. Paperback; 203x276mm; 172 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. 107 2020. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789694604. £35.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789694611. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Archaeological explorations in the area north of the Roman Villa of Casale in Piazza Armerina (Sicily) were carried out in 2013-2014. Investigations on the slopes of Monte Mangone overlooking the villa, and a survey carried out in the immediate surroundings of the hill in the Colla district, provided valuable new evidence regarding the extension of the medieval town. This exansion also impacted the areas east of the villa, and on the still existing road network that connected it to the river Gela-Nociara, in whose immediate vicinity it is now supposed there was a craft district.

The exhaustive archaeological investigations in the area demonstrate that to the north there are no structures relevant to the late antique villa, dating instead to the mid-tenth century; it is therefore an inhabited area of ​​the late Islamic era which is then abandoned and leveled. After a phase of abandonment, during which the area is sporadically used as a burial place, a Norman settlement is built, datable to the mid 11th and mid 12th century.

Sui resti della Villa tardoantica del Casale di Piazza Armerina, tra il X secolo d.C. e gli inizi dell’XI si era impiantato un vasto insediamento islamico che occupava una vasta area anche a sud e a nord della Villa, di cui è stato esplorato un ampio settore con una strada glareata su cui si aprivano le unità residenziali, alcune delle quali presentavano un cortile interno basolato in cui si trovavano anche un focolare e un forno, intorno a cui si dislocavano i vari ambienti e spesso anche una scala per l’accesso al piano superiore o al tetto. Improvvisamente l’abitato venne abbandonato e i suoi resti furono livellati ; mentre a partire dalla metà dell’XI secolo viene costruito un nuovo abitato normanno, in cui si trova un ambiente rettangolare con portico laterale, una torre difensiva sul lato corto e un silos all’esterno per la conservazione delle derrate. Era un quartiere artigianale ceramico sorto sulla riva del vicino torrente Nocciara.

Nei primi decenni del XII secolo forse per un violento terremoto che colpì la Sicilia centro orientale o in seguito alla repressione della rivolta della popolazione islamica da parte di Guglielmo I, l’abitato venne abbandonato, ma la vita in esso continuò fino all’età federiciana.

L’abitato bizantino e medievale si estendeva anche alle colline retrostanti la Villa (Monte Mangone e Colla); in particolare sulla collina di C.da Colla, durante un survay effettuato su una vasta estensione di terreno, sono state raccolte terra sigillata africana e lastrine di rivestimento in marmo pregiato, che hanno fatto ipotizzare la presenza di un esteso insediamento tardo antico sulla collina retrostante a sud della Villa del Casale.
Arqueología de la Edad Moderna en el País Vasco y su entorno edited by Idoia Grau Sologestoa and Juan Antonio Quirós Castillo. Paperback; 203x276mm; iv+306 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (68 pages in colour). 106 2020. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789694383. £48.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789694390. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Post-medieval archaeology is currently going through a critical phase of consolidation and disciplinary redefinition across Europe, where mere proposals or ambitions are becoming tangible scientific and disciplinary realities. This renovation is most evident in Southern Europe, where, until recently, these studies have been treated as somewhat marginal. The convergence of new actors and disciplines (historical archaeology, archaeology of the post-medieval centuries, professional archaeology, ethnoarchaeology or archaeological sciences), the promotion of new patrimonialization initiatives, and the creation of new action frameworks as a result of the deep economic crisis of the years 2007-2008 are some of the factors that have shaped current approaches to the archaeology of the Modern Age. Focussing on archaeological studies of the Modern Age located in the Basque Country, Arqueología de la Edad Moderna en el País Vasco y su entorno recognises the main themes investigated (cities, rural spaces, funeral spaces, consumption and production, communications systems, maritime archaeology), detects some of the strengths and weaknesses, and proposes new lines of action and disciplinary consolidation. In short, this volume aims to provide a summary of the current archaeological framework for investigations of the Modern Age in the Basque Country, and to make proposals for developing these practices in the future.

Las arqueologías postmedievales atraviesan en la actualidad una fase critica de consolidación y redefinición disciplinar en casi toda Europa, donde han pasado de ser meras propuestas o ambiciones para convertirse en realidades científicas y disciplinares tangibles. Esta renovación es más evidente en el sur de Europa, donde estos estudios han tenido hasta ahora un peso más bien marginal. La convergencia de nuevos actores y disciplinas (arqueología histórica, arqueología de los siglos postmedievales, arqueología profesional, etnoarqueología o las ciencias arqueológicas), el impulso de nuevas iniciativas de patrimonialización, y la creación de nuevos marcos de actuación como consecuencia de la profunda crisis económica de los años 2007-2008, son algunas de las causas que explican por qué se han ido definiendo con mayor claridad los contornos de la Arqueología de la Edad Moderna. A partir del ejemplo del País Vasco, este volumen realiza un diagnóstico sobre las principales temáticas indagadas (ciudades, espacios rurales, espacios funerarios, consumo y producción, sistemas de comunicaciones, arqueología marítima), detecta algunas de las fortalezas y debilidades de la arqueología de la Edad Moderna y propone nuevas líneas de actuación y de consolidación disciplinar. En definitiva, este libro pretende mostrar qué es la Arqueología de la Edad Moderna en el País Vasco en la actualidad y qué puede llegar a ser.

About the Editors
Idoia Grau Sologestoa is currently a post-doctoral researcher at the Integrative Prehistory and Archaeological Science (IPAS/IPNA) department, University of Basel. Previously, she worked at the universities of Sheffield, Nottingham and the Basque Country. Her main research interest is human and animal relationships in historical periods, from Roman to modern times. She is currently editing a book on innovations in the rural world during the Early Modern Era. ;

Juan Antonio Quirós Castillo is a Professor of Medieval Archaeology at the University of the Basque Country and Honorary Senior Research Associate at the Institute of Archaeology (University College London). He is the director of the Heritage and Cultural Landscapes Research Group of the University of the Basque Country and the Rural Medieval Research Group, CSIC-UPV/EHU. His principal interests lie in the study of the archaeology of landscapes, the archaeology of rural societies, Mediterranean archaeology, the archaeology of architecture, and the study of social c
Bar Locks and Early Church Security in the British Isles by John F. Potter. Paperback; 203x276mm; xviii+144 pages; 90 figures, 11 tables (includes 96 colour pages). 105 2020. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789693980. £40.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789693997. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Bar Locks and Early Church Security in the British Isles examines the evidence for the measures taken to make church buildings secure or defensible from their earliest times until the later medieval period. In particular it examines the phenomenon of ‘bar locks’ which the author identifies in many different contexts throughout England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland.

Bar locks take various forms and can be made of different materials, but they all provide a means of locking a door by placing a bar behind it from the inside which is then secured onto the door frame or housings on adjacent walls. The most dramatic examples are provided by thick wooden bars slotted into recesses incorporated in the adjacent door jambs. The volume describes and lists all the examples identified by the author and also publishes his photographs of the evidence for the first time.

The recognition of the role of bar locks in securing churches led the author to consider further measures which may have been introduced to enhance church security; these measures could Have had major implications for structural change and design in the buildings. These supplementary protective requirements and methods for achieving them are many and various and are also considered in the volume.

About the Author
John F. Potter trained as a geologist (BSc Manchester) specialising in lithostratigraphy (PhD London). He served as Principal of Farnborough College of Technology in Hampshire from 1975 to 1997, was Hon. Secretary of the Institution of Environmental Sciences, and Editor for many years of the international quarterly journal, The Environmentalist. On retirement he was appointed Emeritus Professor at the University of Surrey and joined the University of Reading in order to continue with the church building fabric studies which he started in 1975.
Iron Age Slaving and Enslavement in Northwest Europe by Karim Mata. Paperback; 203x276mm; vi+58 pages; 13 figures. 104 2019. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789694185. £22.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789694192. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Archaeologists have yet to consider seriously the impact of slaving and enslavement on socio-cultural developments in Iron Age Europe. Commonly treated as a mere byproduct of incessant tribal warfare, it is generally held that slavery was not a significant phenomenon in temperate Europe before the Roman era. This is a curious state of affairs considering the clear cross-paradigmatic recognition of competition and conflict as prime movers of historical transformation. How is it that prehistorians see evidence for social stratification and inter-group conflict in so many contexts, yet grant slavery so little attention?

If slaving and enslavement can be shown to have been significant transformative phenomena in Iron Age Europe, how would this affect the interpretation of (old and new) archaeological evidence, and how would this change ideas about broader socio-cultural developments that have long been considered known by those who have looked at these things through the lens of ‘acculturation’ or ‘complexification’?

Comparative research shows how slavery is a multifaceted phenomenon with complex interrelated material, behavioral, and ideological dimensions. Therefore, any meaningful archaeological study has to take a multi-thread approach whereby a wide range of material categories and domains of social practice are examined, contextually, relationally, and comparatively. In taking such an approach, this exploratory study of the dynamics of Iron Age slaving and enslaving in Northwest Europe contributes to a complex but neglected topic.

About the Author
Karim Mata is a scholar-in-residence at the University of Virginia. He attended the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (MA) and the University of Chicago (MA, PhD), where he studied the history, archaeology, and anthropology of Northwest Europe and the Mediterranean world. He has developed an interdisciplinary interest for theorizing cultural entanglement, social transformation, motivational worldviews, and ideological discourse. This has shaped his doctoral research on the archaeology of values and social transformation in Iron Age and Roman-period Northwest Europe, as well as subsequent research on transcultural discourse, slavery, and cultural theory.
Uno sguardo su Pisa ellenistica da piazza del Duomo Lo scavo del saggio D 1985-1988 by Emanuele Taccola. Paperback; 203x276mm; 410pp; 39 figures; 95 plates (22 colour pages). 103 2019. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789694000. £60.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789694017. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

The Etruscan character of the city of Pisa has been questioned for a long time. However, thanks to a thriving period of archaeological investigations undertaken in the mid-1980s, it was possible to definitively confirm the ancient Etruscan origin of the settlement.

One of the main excavations was carried out between 1985 and 1988 a few steps away from the Leaning Tower (saggio D), where a complex and uninterrupted stratigraphy dating from the middle of the 6th century BC and the end of the 5th century AD was brought to light. The anthropic installations and wall structures unearthed share the same alignments and the same orientation, within an apparently orthogonal urban network designed at least from the end of the 5th century BC and knowingly respected until the end of the Roman imperial age.

Uno sguardo su Pisa ellenistica da piazza del Duomo, dedicated to the Hellenistic period documented in the excavation of saggio D, presents a substantial catalogue of the ceramic repertoire therein recovered, most of which are still not attested in the city. Due to the results of this work, it is now possible to redefine the role of Pisa in this period as one of the major trade centres of northern coastal Etruria.

About the Author
Dr. Emanuele Taccola is a Teaching Assistant of Etruscology and Italic Archaeology, and an Adjunct Professor of Methodology of Survey and Representation in Archaeology at the University of Pisa.

Italian Description:
Il carattere etrusco della città di Pisa è stato messo in discussione per molto tempo. Tuttavia, grazie a un periodo intenso di indagini archeologiche sistematiche intraprese a metà degli anni Ottanta del secolo scorso, è stato possibile confermare definitivamente l'antica origine etrusca dell'insediamento, come già riportato da numerose fonti storiche antiche.

Uno dei principali interventi di scavo è quello effettuato tra il 1985 e il 1988 a breve distanza dalla torre pendente (saggio D), dove è stata portata alla luce una complessa e ininterrotta sequenza stratigrafica compresa tra la metà del VI secolo a.C. e la fine del V secolo d.C.

I resti degli edifici delle varie fasi identificate dall’indagine archeologica condividono lo stesso orientamento, inseriti all'interno di una rete urbana apparentemente ortogonale progettata almeno dalla fine del V secolo a.C. e consapevolmente rispettata fino alla fine dell'età imperiale romana. Questo libro, dedicato al periodo ellenistico documentato nello scavo del saggio D di Piazza del Duomo, presenta un consistente catalogo del repertorio ceramico ivi recuperato, gran parte del quale non ancora attestato in città.

Grazie ai nuovi dati emersi da questo lavoro, è possibile ridefinire il ruolo di Pisa in questo periodo come uno dei maggiori centri commerciali dell'Etruria costiera settentrionale.

Emanuele Taccola ha completato il suo intero percorso di studi presso l’Università di Pisa, dove ha ottenuto due Lauree con lode in Lettere Classiche e Archeologia (2003, 2006) e il Dottorato con lode in Scienze dell'Antichità e Archeologia (2019). È Cultore della Materia in Etruscologia e Archeologia Italica e Professore a contratto di Metodologia del Rilievo e della Rappresentazione in Archeologia all'Università di Pisa. Emanuele Taccola ha partecipato a numerosi scavi in Italia e all'estero come archeologo e responsabile del rilievo topografico e fotogrammetrico. È autore di numerose pubblicazioni su riviste scientifiche e importanti conferenze internazionali. Dal 2008 Emanuele Taccola è impiegato come tecnico laureato e responsabile del Laboratorio di Disegno e Restauro (LADIRE) presso il Dipartimento di Civiltà e Forme del Sapere dell'Università di Pisa.
Imágenes y Paisajes: El Arte Rupestre del Noreste de Catamarca, Argentina by Eva Amanda Calomino. Paperback; ii+280 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. Spanish text with English abstract. 102 2019. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789693911. £60.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789693928. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

In the Argentine Northwest, northeast of Catamarca, there are a set of shelters and caves located in the rainforest with rock art with virtually no background. Little is known about the occupants of these spaces and their past practices. In order to learn more about these, this book addresses the study and systematic analysis of the plastic-thematic-compositional repertoire of the rock art sites of ‘Los Algarrobales’ and their spatial and temporal distribution. In this way, it is possible to approach the understanding of the modalities of appropriation of the people of the inhabited area, the relationship that they would have maintained with the environment, as well as the distinction of various events and uses of different places and, in this way, contribute to the knowledge of the historical, social and cultural development of the area. Throughout the reading, we start to glimpse the archaeological landscapes related to rock art for this sector of the southern Andean area.

About the Author
Eva Amanda Calomino received her Doctorate in Archaeology from Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). She has participated in diverse research in the south Andean area (Argentine Northwest and Bolivia) as well as in Sinai and Luxor (Egypt) and has collaborated with multiple national and international research projects.

Spanish description
En el Noroeste Argentino, al noreste de Catamarca, se encuentran un conjunto de aleros y cuevas emplazados en las yungas con arte rupestre prácticamente sin antecedentes. Poco se conoce sobre los ocupantes de estos espacios y sus prácticas pasadas. Con el in de conocer más sobre éstos, en estas páginas se aborda el estudio y el análisis sistemático del repertorio plástico-temático-compositivo de los sitios con arte rupestre de Los Algarrobales (Catamarca) y su distribución espacial y temporal. De este modo, es posible acercarnos a la comprensión de las modalidades de apropiación de las personas de la zona habitada, la relación que las mismas habrían mantenido con el entorno, así como la distinción de diversos eventos y usos de distintos de los lugares y, de este modo, aportar al conocimiento del desarrollo histórico, social y cultural del área. A lo largo de la lectura, nos acercamos a vislumbrar los paisajes arqueológicos relacionados con el arte rupestre para este sector del área meridional andina.

Sobre el Autor
Doctora en Arqueología por la Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Ha participado en investigaciones en el área Surandina (en el Noroeste argentino y en Bolivia) y en Sinaí y Luxor (Egipto) y ha colaborado con múltiples proyectos de investigación nacionales e internacionales. Se ha desempañado en docencia en dicha universidad, ha publicado artículos y libros sobre sus temas de investigación ha y dictado ponencias y conferencias en Argentina y otros países. En el noreste de la provincia de Catamarca ha desarrollado su investigación doctoral sobre los paisajes arqueológicos rupestres de Los Algarrobales y actualmente desarrolla su investigación posdoctoral sobre el análisis de los small finds, en el del sitio Tell el-Ghaba (Norte de Sinaí, Egipto).
Redonner vie à une collection: les terres cuites communes du fort La Tour by Julie Toupin. Paperback; xviii+248 pages; 19 tables, 1 graph, 13 figures, fully illustrated catalogue (colour throughout). French text. (Print RRP £54.00). 101 2019. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789693836. £54.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789693843. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Research on common earthenware from the first half of the 17th century is very elementary, when it exists at all. This study seeks to bring back to life the ceramics, the inhabitants and the site where the objects were used. The collection includes 1602 fragments from 277 common earthenware objects coming from the period of occupation of Fort La Tour (1631-1645) in Portland Point, New Brunswick. These pieces were mostly made in France, but some are probably of English origin.

Mostly through the visual identification of the features included in the ceramic body, a classification system was developed with four main groups, 28 types, and 10 variations. With this classification system, earthenware objects were able to be grouped based on the activities for which they were used and related to their uses and functions. This process enabled links to be established with the daily use of the earthenware objects on a French site in the first half of the 17th century.

French description
Les recherches portant sur les terres cuites communes datant de la première demie du XVIIe siècle sont pratiquement inexistantes ou sont très élémentaires. Cette recherche se veut une étude qui permettra de redonner vie aux objets cérames ainsi qu’aux habitants et au site sur lequel ces objets furent utilisés. Notre collection comprend un ensemble de 1 602 tessons regroupés en 277 objets de terres cuites communes provenant de la phase d'occupation du fort La Tour (1631-1645) à Portland Point au Nouveau-Brunswick (BhDm-7). Ces pièces sont majoritairement de facture françaises, mais quelques objets sont probablement anglais.

Nous avons élaboré, principalement par l’identification visuelle des inclusions comprises dans la pâte, une typologie céramique comprenant quatre grandes familles, 28 types et 10 variantes. À partir de cette classification, les objets en terre cuite commune furent regroupés à l'intérieur d’activités fonctionnelles qui ont été reliées aux usages et aux fonctions de ces céramiques. Cette démarche a permis d’établir des liens avec l’utilisation quotidienne des terres cuites communes sur un site français de la première demie du XVIIe siècle.
Invisible Archaeologies: Hidden aspects of daily life in ancient Egypt and Nubia edited by Loretta Kilroe. Paperback; 203x276mm; ii+128 pages. 100 2019. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789693751. £35.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789693768. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Invisible Archaeologies: hidden aspects of daily life in ancient Egypt and Nubia brings together eight of the papers presented at a conference held in Oxford in 2017. The theme aimed to bring together international early-career researchers applying novel archaeological and anthropological methods to the ‘overlooked’ in ancient Egypt and Nubia – and included diverse topics such as women, prisoners, entangled communities and funerary displays.

The papers use a range of archaeological and textual material and span from the Predynastic period to the Late Period. By applying methodology used so successfully within the discipline of archaeology over the past 20 years, they offer a different perspective on Egyptological research, and demonstrate how such theoretical models can broaden scholarly understanding of the Nile Valley.

About the Editor
Loretta Kilroe is an Egyptologist who completed her PhD from the University of Oxford in 2019. She specialises in ancient Egyptian and Nubian ceramics and has participated in several excavations in Sudan with the Sudan Archaeological Research Society. She now works as Project Curator: Sudan and Nubia at the British Museum.
Public Archaeology: Arts of Engagement edited by Howard Williams, Caroline Pudney and Afnan Ezzeldin. Paperback; 203x276mm; xiv+270 pages; 82 figures, 5 tables (101 pages in colour). 99 2019. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789693737. £58.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789693744. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

How should communities be engaged with archaeological research and how are new projects targeting distinctive groups and deploying innovative methods and media? In particular, how are art/archaeological interactions key to public archaeology today?

This collection provides original perspectives on public archaeology’s current practices and future potentials focusing on art/archaeological media, strategies and subjects. It stems from the 2nd University of Chester Archaeology Student Conference, held on 5 April 2017 at the Grosvenor Museum, Chester: Archaeo-Engage: Engaging Communities in Archaeology.

About the Editors
Howard Williams is Professor of Archaeology at the University of Chester and researches mortuary archaeology, archaeology and memory, the history of archaeology and public archaeology. He regularly writes an academic blog: Archaeodeath.

Caroline Pudney is a Senior Lecturer in Archaeology at the University of Chester with research interests in Iron Age and Roman Britain, material culture, public archaeology and applied archaeology.

Afnan Ezzeldin graduated with a BA (Hons) Archaeology degree in 2017 from the University of Chester. Subsequently, in 2018, she completed the MA Archaeology of Death and Memory from the University of Chester, with a thesis focused on manga mortuary archaeology.
Architectures of Fire: Processes, Space and Agency in Pyrotechnologies edited by Dragoş Gheorghiu. 98 2019. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789693676. £30.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789693683. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Architectures of Fire attempts to present the entanglement between the physical phenomenon of fire, the pyro-technological instrument that it is, its material supports, and the human being. In this perspective, the physical process of combustion, material culture, as well as the development of human action in space, are addressed together.

Fire is located at the centre of all pre-modern architecture. It creates the living or technological space. Fire creates architectures since it imposes geometry, from the simple circles of stone or clay, which control its spread (and which are the geometrical figures of its optimal efficiency), to cone trunks, cylinders, half-spheres, half-cylinders or parallelepipeds, circular geometric figures that efficiently control the air-draught process required for combustion. All these forms involving the circle are determined by the control and conservation of thermal energy.

We should not imagine that the term ‘architecture’ evokes only constructed objects that delimit human action. Architecture means not only the built space, but also the experienced space, in the present case around the pyro-instruments. Pyro-instruments involve an ergonomic, kinesthetic and visual relationship, as well as the rhythmic actions of feeding or maintaining fire at a certain technological tempo. The technological agency is structured both by the physics of the combustion phenomenon, and by the type of operation to be performed.

About the Author
Dragoş Gheorghiu is an historical anthropologist/archaeologist and experimentalist whose studies focus on the process of cognition, material culture and ancient technologies.

He has edited books on fire in archaeology, fire as material culture, fire as an instrument, also on ceramics, figurines and stamps. He has contributed articles on ceramic technology, kilns and burned houses in the Chalcolithic, and during the last two decades has carried out experiments with the building and burning of wattle and daub houses, with kilns and with other structures involved with combustion.

Professor Gheorghiu is the Secretary of the UISPP Commission ‘Neolithic Civilizations of the Mediterranean and Europe’, and is a member of the European Association of Archaeologists. He is a Paul Mellon Fellow at the Centre of Advanced Studies in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Arab Settlements: Tribal structures and spatial organizations in the Middle East between Hellenistic and Early Islamic periods by Nicolò Pini. Paperback; xii+252 pages; 88 figures, 13 plates. 97 2019. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789693614. £50.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789693621. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

How can the built environment help in the understanding of social and economic changes involving ancient local communities? Arab Settlements aims to shed light on the degree to which economic and political changes affected social and identity patterns in the regional context from the Nabatean through to the Umayyad and Abbasid periods. Settlement analysis is understood to be a crucial tool for accessing the local material culture and characterising the specific identities of the concerned societies. For this purpose, the author compares eight case studies across the Middle East, considering their spatial organisation over a long period (2nd – 9th centuries AD). For the interpretation of the remains, the anthropological concepts of ‘segmented societies’ and ‘pastoralism’ are fundamental, providing possible explanations of some spatial patterns attested in the case-studies. The idea of ‘Oriental’ settlements underscores the marked continuity in the organisation of the buildings and the use of space revealed on different levels between the Byzantine and Early Islamic periods. Furthermore, the label of ‘Arab settlements’ is proposed in this context, highlighting the direct connection between social identities and built environment, with a direct reference to the development of an ‘Arab’ identity.

About the Author
Nicolò Pini PhD (Cologne, 2017) is external Research associate with the Islamic Archaeology Unit at the University of Bonn and collaborates on several projects in the Near East (among which Tall Hisban in Jordan and Khirbet beit Mazmil near Jerusalem).
Imágenes, lengua y creencias en Lusitania romana edited by Jorge Tomás García and Vanessa Del Prete. Paperback; 203x276mm; illustrated throughout (51 pages in colour). 94 2019. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789692945. £48.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789692952. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

This publication considers the visual, linguistic and religious culture of the Roman province of Lusitania. Roman influence was especially notable in religion and artistic manifestations. It was in the cities where the Lusitanians acquired Roman civilization: they learned Latin, the Frankish language of the peninsula; they were introduced to the Roman administration and religion; and in the third century, when Rome converted to Christianity, so did the Lusitanians. The Latin language was imposed as the official language, functioning as a binding factor and communication between different peoples. Being a fairly large area and lacking a unified state that promoted a particular language in administration or education, different languages coexisted simultaneously in Hispania. The subjects continued to use their native languages, although official business was conducted in Latin or Greek. Indigenous religions persisted, although sacrifices were offered everywhere for the emperor and the gods of the Roman pantheon. Visual culture also reflected the hybrid character of provincial civilization. Images of a Roman style and subject matter circulated widely, and yet the craftsmen and consumers of the provinces maintained their own traditions, adopting Roman techniques and tastes as they pleased. The papers in this volume establish a broad and generous view of the relationship between images, languages and religious culture within Lusitanian society.

La presente publicación pretende suponer un acercamiento transversal y generoso a la cultura visual, lingüística y religiosa de la provincia romana de Lusitania. La influencia romana fue especialmente notable en la religión y en las manifestaciones artísticas. Las ciudades fueron una de las instituciones más importantes impuestas a Lusitania durante la ocupación romana. Fue en las ciudades donde los lusitanos adquirieron la civilización romana: aprendieron latín, la lengua franca de la península; fueron introducidos a la administración y religión romanas; y en el siglo III, cuando Roma se convirtió al cristianismo, también lo hicieron los lusitanos. La lengua latina se impuso como la lengua oficial, funcionando como factor vinculante y comunicación entre los diferentes pueblos. Al ser un área bastante grande, y al carecer de un estado unificado que promoviera un idioma determinado en la administración o la educación, en Hispania convivieron diferentes lenguas simultáneamente. Los sujetos siguieron usando sus idiomas nativos, aunque los negocios oficiales se realizaron en latín o griego. Las religiones indígenas persistieron, aunque los sacrificios se ofrecían en todas partes para el emperador y los dioses del panteón romano. La cultura visual también reflejó el carácter híbrido de la civilización provincial. Las imágenes del estilo y el mensaje romanos circulaban ampliamente y, sin embargo, los artesanos y los consumidores de las provincias mantenían sus propias tradiciones, adoptando las técnicas y los gustos romanos como les convenía. Este y otros problemas están recogidos en los capítulos de esta obra, que permite establecer una mirada amplia y generosa sobre la relación entre las imágenes, la lengua y la visión religiosa y cultural de la sociedad lusitana. Los autores de este volumen tratan así de entender este panorama tan complejo, utilizando con gran énfasis las imágenes y el lenguaje, fuentes de relevancia para acometer una visión transversal de la cultura y religión de Lusitania.

About the Editors
Jorge Tomás García PhD (Murcia, 2010) is Professor of Ancient Art at the Autonomous University of Madrid (Art History Department).

Vanessa Del Prete Mainer PhD (Madrid, 2016), is Chief Editor of the academic journal Gods and Men (interdisciplinary studies regarding the sciences of religions), launched in 2018.
Mobile Peoples – Permanent Places: Nomadic Landscapes and Stone Architecture from the Hellenistic to Early Islamic Periods in North-Eastern Jordan by Harmen Huigens. Paperback; 203x276mm; 270 pages; 183 figures, 25 tables (152 pages in colour). (Print £65.00). 96 2019. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789693133. £65.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789693140. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Mobile Peoples – Permanent Places explores the relationship between nomadic communities who resided in the Black Desert of north-eastern Jordan between c. 300 BC and 900 AD and the landscapes they inhabited and extensively modified. Although these communities were highly mobile, moving through the desert following seasonal variation in natural resources, they significantly invested in the landscapes they frequented by erecting highly durable stone architecture, and by carving rock art and inscriptions. Although these inscriptions, known as Safaitic, are relatively well studied, the archaeological remains had received little attention until recently.

This book focuses on the architectural features, including enclosures and elaborate burial cairns, that were created in the landscape some 2000 years ago and which were used and revisited on multiple occasions. It explores how nomadic communities modified these landscapes by presenting new data from remote sensing, field surveys, and excavations. To better understand the purpose of these modifications and how this changed through time, the landscape is further analysed on various temporal and geographic scales.

This book particularly deals with the archaeological landscapes of the Jebel Qurma region of north-eastern Jordan. It is part of the Landscapes of Survival project, a research programme based at Leiden University that has brought together both archaeologists and epigraphers to work on this fascinating region.

About the Author
Harmen Huigens is a landscape archaeologist who investigates processes of modifying and encountering human living space in the ancient Near East. He received his doctorate from the Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University (2018).
Living with Heritage: The Case of Tsodilo World Heritage Site and Neighbouring Localities by Stella Basinyi. Paperback; 203x276mm; 184 pages; 15 figures; 19 tables (13 pages in colour). (Print RRP £32.00). 95 2019 Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology 99. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789693041. £32.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789693058. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Cultural Heritage Management in most parts of Africa has been concerned and focused on conservation and preservation of cultural and natural heritage and the development of sites for tourism and economic benefit. In this venture, the tangible heritage such as monuments and landscapes become the focus and of primary significance. Therefore, most efforts have failed to grasp the significance and relevance of cultural heritage to the local communities and the existing traditional and cultural attachment to heritage sites beyond the economic gain. Of late, operational guidelines of the WH Conventions have targeted the engagement of communities in the management of their local heritage and shaping visitor experiences. The major challenge is the implementation of these agreements and restoration of cultural pride in local communities. The communities’ interest in heritage areas has been overshadowed by the perceived idea of economic gain and the global agenda for preservation of monuments for future generation as the foremost primary benefit in heritage over cultural rights and entitlement to heritage sites, present day cultural valuation and traditional use.

In 2008 several heritage sites in Botswana were opened for tourism in addition to the Tsodilo World Heritage Site. Furthermore, in June 2014 the Okavango Delta covering a vast range of land occupied by cultural communities was also inscribed on the World Heritage List, becoming the second World Heritage Site in the country. However, insufficient research and analysis has been undertaken to understand how local communities and local cultures respond to these ventures. The study is case study based, presenting an overview of community transformation and responses to universalized heritage value and collective global view that characterize heritage status of cultural materials and the interactions of local cultures and traditions with the concepts of heritage and culture in heritage sites as globalised platforms. In this regard, it is evident through this study that the interlocutors are aware of their community boundaries and value in response to a national and global process of ‘valuation’ of the heritage site that is not theirs.

About the Author
Stella Basinyi obtained a BA (Humanities) degree in Archaeology and French Language (2006-2009) and Postgraduate Diploma in Education (2010-2011) from the University of Botswana. She pursued an MA in Culture and Environment in Africa (2011-2013) and a PhD in disciplines of Cultural Studies and social Sciences which contributes to a critical inspection of the World Heritage Program.
Why Did Ancient States Collapse? The Dysfunctional State by Malcolm Levitt. Paperback; 203x276mm;56 pages; 4 tables, 1 diagram (black & white throughout). 93 2019. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789693027. £18.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789693034. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

Ancient states were rooted in agriculture, sedentism and population growth. They were fragile and prone to collapse, but there is no consensus on the causes or meaning of collapse, and there is an ongoing debate about the importance, nature and even existence of state-wide collapse.

Explanations of collapse in terms of the competing mono-causal factors are found inferior to those incorporating dynamic, interactive systems. It is proposed that collapse should be explained as failure to fulfil the ancient state’s core functions: assurance of food supplies, defence against external attack, maintenance of internal peace, imposition of its will throughout its territory, enforcement of state-wide laws, and promotion of an ideology to legitimise the political and social status quo.

To fulfil these functions certain necessary conditions must be met. The legitimacy of the political and social status quo, including the distribution of political power and wealth, needs to be accepted; the state should be able to extract sufficient resources to fulfil its functions such as defence; it must be able to enforce its decisions; the ruling elite should share a common purpose and actions; the society needs to reflect a shared spirit (asibaya) and purpose across elites and commoners who believe it is worthy of defence.

Weaknesses and failure to meet any condition can interact to exacerbate the situation: maladministration, corruption and elite preoccupation with self-aggrandisement can induce fiscal weakness, reduced military budgets and further invasion; it can induce neglect of key infrastructures (especially water management). Inequality, a commonly neglected factor despite ancient texts, can erode asibaya and legitimacy and alienate commoners from the defence of the state.

These themes are explored in relation to the Egyptian Old Kingdom, Mycenae, the Western Roman Empire (WRE), and the Maya. They all exhibit, to varying degrees, weaknesses in meeting the above conditions necessary for stability.

About the Author
Malcolm Levitt held posts as lecturer in economics at Liverpool and Hallsworth Fellow at Manchester University (where his interest in state collapse originated) before joining HM Treasury where he became Senior Economic Adviser. He then moved to the OECD and later served as Chef de Division in the European Commission.

Since completing his MA in Archaeology at the UCL Institute of Archaeology in 2018 he has concentrated on deepening the theoretical basis of his dissertation on why ancient states collapsed.
Yellow Beach 2 after 75 Years The Archaeology of a WWII Invasion Beach on Saipan and its Historic Context in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands by Boyd Dixon, Brenda Tenorio, Cherie Walth and Kathy Mowrer with contributions by Isla Nelson and Robert Jones. Paperback; 203x276mm; x+128 pages; 88 figures, 10 tables (50 colour pages). 92 2019. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789692587. £35.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789692594. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

After 75 years, this story presents archaeological evidence, archival records, and respected elders’ accounts from WWII and the most catastrophic period in Pacific Basin history, and then into modern times on Saipan in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. On June 15, 1944, Afetna Point was called ‘Yellow Beach 2’ by the U.S. Marines and Army infantry braving Japanese resistance to establish a beachhead before capturing As Lito airfield the following days. The beachhead then served as a resupply landing for the next two weeks or more as U.S. forces slowly cleared the island of enemy strongpoints, and removed wounded Americans and battle weary civilians to off-shore medical treatment. At the end of the battle Chamorro, Carolinian, Okinawan, and Korean residents were relocated into stockades for their separation from Japanese soldiers until liberation on July 4, 1946. American military and eventual civilian administration of the San Antonio area transformed the agrarian landscape into a busy corridor of residential, industrial, and then tourist development. Once again in the 21st century, competition for regional tourism and investment makes Saipan a nexus of geopolitical intrigue and economic speculation where the past is not forgotten.

About the Authors
Boyd Dixon is Senior Archaeologist for the Cardno GS office in Guam and the CNMI. With over 40 years of archaeological experience in North America, Latin America, Western Europe, and the Pacific Basin, his interests are equally varied. They embrace prehistoric and historic patterns of settlement, subsistence, interaction, power, and conflict. Boyd holds a BA from the University of Alabama, with MA and PhD in Anthropology from the University of Connecticut. He has also been a research associate in the Micronesian Area Research Center at the University of Guam.

Brenda Y. Tenorio has played a role in shaping US/CNMI relations, has worked with, represented and advised leadership in the CNMI executive and legislative branches of government in negotiations with the U.S. and in the process developed public policy on a variety of issues locally. Over the years, Ms. Tenorio has also provided research/consulting services for proposed multi-million dollar private development projects and a number of firms in the gaming, construction and energy fields. As staff for CNMI Covenant negotiators, Ms. Tenorio worked on issues ranging from the labor and immigration to bonds and financial assistance packages to the CNMI. As a CNMI Covenant negotiator Ms. Tenorio addressed CNMI concerns over citizenship by birth and ownership of submerged land. Ms. Tenorio has a Bachelor’s Degree in History and Philosophy from Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Cherie Walth is a Project Manager, Principal Investigator, and Bioarchaeologist for SWCA Environmental Consultant’s Albuquerque Office. Cherie has worked in such diverse regions as the Rocky Mountains, the U.S. Southwest, the Pacific West, Micronesia, and North Africa. Her experience is in all levels of prehistoric and historic archaeological investigations and includes human and non-human osteological analysis (bioarchaeology). In her 30+ years of experience in cultural resource management, the analysis of human remains has remained her passion. Cherie has an M.A. in Anthropology from the University of Colorado and her thesis reported on human remains from her fieldwork in Tunisia, North Africa.

Kathy Mowrer is an Archaeologist and Bioarchaeologist for SWCA Environmental Consultant’s Albuquerque Office. Kathy has 20 years of archaeological experience in the U. S. Southwest, Pacific Coast, Plains, and CNMI, Saipan. She has been the consulting osteologist for Crow Canyon Archaeological Center in Cortez, Colorado for 13 years. Kathy’s experience includes prehistoric and historic data recovery, survey, and research. Kathy holds a B.A .from Fort Lewis College with a major in Anthropol
Objects of the Past in the Past: Investigating the Significance of Earlier Artefacts in Later Contexts edited by Matthew G. Knight, Dot Boughton and Rachel E. Wilkinson. Paperback; 203x276mm; 77 figures, 11 tables (43 pages in colour). 89 2019. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789692488. £40.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789692495. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

How did past communities view, understand and communicate their pasts? And how can we, as archaeologists, understand this? In recent years these questions have been approached through studies of the extended occupation and use of landscapes, monuments and artefacts to explore concepts of time and memory. But what of objects that were already old in the past? Interpretations for these items have ranged from the discard of scrap to objects of veneration. Evidence from a range of periods would suggest objects of the past were an important part of many later societies that encountered them, either as heirlooms with remembered histories or rediscovered curiosities from a more distant past.

For the first time, this volume brings together a range of case studies in which objects of the past were encountered and reappropriated. It follows a conference session at the Theoretical Archaeological Group in Cardiff 2017, in which historians, archaeologists, heritage professionals and commercial archaeologists gathered to discuss this topic on a broad (pre)historical scale, highlighting similarities and contrast in depositional practices and reactions to relics of the past in different periods. Through case studies spanning the Bronze Age through to the 18th century AD, this volume presents new research demonstrating that the reappropriation of these already old objects was not anomalous, but instead represents a practice that recurs throughout (pre)history.

About the Editors
Matthew G. Knight is the curator of the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age collections at National Museums Scotland and Chair of the Later Prehistoric Finds Group. He specialises in the production, use and deposition of Bronze Age metalwork and completed his PhD on the deliberate destruction of metalwork in south-west England in 2018. He continues to be fascinated by destructive practices across Europe and is currently preparing a monograph on the subject. Matt’s MA thesis concerned out-of-time Bronze Age metalwork and he is frequently distracted by the relationship people in the past held with their own pasts and their treatment of already old material culture in the Bronze Age, or indeed any other time period.

Dot Boughton originates from Germany and is a prehistoric metalwork specialist who now works as a freelancer and translator in Cumbria. Dot did her undergraduate degree at the Freie Universität Berlin and moved to England in 1999, where she completed an MSt (2000) and MPhil (2001) in Anglo-Saxon Archaeology at the University of Oxford. In 2015 she completed her PhD dissertation on Early Iron Age socketed axes in Britain at the University of Central Lancashire. Dot was the Portable Antiquities Scheme’s Finds Liaison Officer for Lancashire and Cumbria from 2005–2017 and the Curator of Archaeology for Lancashire Museums 2017–2018. She worked for Oxford Archaeology (North) as their Finds, Archives and Environmental Officer from 2018–2019. Dot is now a freelance small finds specialist, writing metalwork reports for units and museums. She also translates historical German documents into English and vice versa.

Rachel E. Wilkinson is an archaeologist and numismatist and her AHRC-funded PhD examined the Iron Age metalwork object hoards from Britain (800 BC – AD 100), creating a national database for Iron Age object hoards which examined their contents, regional distribution and interaction with coin hoards. Previous positions during her PhD include Documentation Assistant and Project Curator: Romano-British collections at the British Museum, she currently freelances as a small finds specialist, editor and historical consultant.
A Painted Ridge: Rock art and performance in the Maclear District, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa by David Mendel Witelson. Paperback; 203x276mm; x+148 pages; 39 figures (31 colour pages). 91 2019 Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology 98. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789692440. £35.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789692457. Book contents pageDownload Full PDF   Buy Now

A Painted Ridge is a book about the San (Bushmen) practice of rock painting. In it, David Witelson explores a suite of spatially close San rock painting sites in the Maclear District of South Africa’s Eastern Cape Province. As a suite, the sites are remarkable because, despite their proximity to each other, they share patterns of similarity and simultaneous difference. They are a microcosm that reflects, in a broad sense, a trend found at other painted sites in South Africa. Rather than attempting to explain these patterns chiefly in terms of chronological breaks or cultural discontinuities, this book seeks to understand patterns of similarity and difference primarily in terms of the performative nature of San image-making. In doing so, the bygone and almost unrecorded practice of San rock art is considered relative to ethnographically well-documented and observed forms of San expressive culture. The approach in the book draws on concepts and terminology from the discipline of performance studies to characterise the San practice of image-making as well as to coordinate otherwise disparate ideas about that practice. It is a study that aims to explicate the nuances of what David Lewis-Williams called the ‘production and consumption’ of San rock art.

About the Author
David Mendel Witelson is a doctoral candidate with Professor David Pearce at the University of the Witwatersrand’s Rock Art Research Institute. His doctoral research is on hunter-gatherer rock art in the north Eastern Cape Province of South Africa with a focus on the role that image-making plays in establishing spatial connections and social relations. In addition to rock art, his research interests include the Holocene archaeology of southern Africa, archaeological method and theory, and the intersection of mainstream archaeological and rock art research. He has published previously in the fields of rock art and lithic analysis. David lives in Linden, Johannesburg.