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NEW: Reindeer hunters at Howburn Farm, South Lanarkshire A Late Hamburgian settlement in southern Scotland – its lithic artefacts and natural environment by Torben Bjarke Ballin with contributions by Alan Saville, Richard Tipping, Tam Ward, Rupert Housley, Lucy Verrill, Matthew Bradley, Clare Wilson, Paul Lincoln and Alison MacLeod. Hardback; 205x290mm; xx+124 pages; 47 illustrations, 25 tables (13 plates in colour). 433 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784919016. £25.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784919023. Book contents pageDownload

This volume presents the lithic assemblage from Howburn in South Lanarkshire, Scotland, which at present is the oldest prehistoric settlement in Scotland (12,700-12,000 BC), and the only Hamburgian settlement in Britain. The site also included a scatter from the Late Upper Palaeolithic Federmesser- Gruppen period (12,000-10,800 BC), as well as lithics from the Mesolithic, Neolithic and Early Bronze Age. The book focuses on the Hamburgian finds, which are mainly based on the exploitation of flint from Doggerland, the then dry bed of the North Sea. The Hamburgian tools include tanged arrowheads, scrapers, piercers, burins, and other implement forms which show similarities with tools of the same age on the European continent. The shape of one scatter suggests that the Palaeolithic settlers lived in tent-like structures. The Palaeolithic finds from Howburn shed light on several important general trends, such as the ‘acclimatization’ of pioneer settlers, as well as the development of regional differences following the initial Late Glacial recolonization of Scotland. Palaeo-environmental work focused on whether there was a small lake (‘Loch Howburn’) in front of the terrace on which the camp was situated, and it was concluded that there was indeed a lake there, but it was neither contemporary with the Hamburgian, nor the Federmesser-Gruppen settlement. Most likely, ‘Loch Howburn’ dates to the Loch Lomond stadial.

About the Author
After having worked as a specialist and Project Manager in Denmark, the Faroe Islands and Norway, Torben Ballin relocated to Scotland in 1998. Since that year, he has worked as an independent lithics specialist in Scotland, England, Northern Ireland and Ireland, and he is an Honorary Fellow at the University of Bradford. Torben’s special interests have been lithic terminology and typology, lithic technology, chronological frameworks, raw material studies, intra-site spatial analyses, prehistoric territories and exchange networks, and – not least – Scotland’s Late Upper Palaeolithic (LUP) and Early Mesolithic industries. While still active in Denmark, he briefly worked with Jørgen Holm at the Hamburgian/Federmesser-Gruppen site of Slotseng in Southern Jutland, and one of his academic theses was on the refitting and spatial analysis of the LUP Brommian settlement of Højgård on Zealand. While in Norway, he led the Farsund Project and the Oslofjord Crossing Project, where he analysed a large number of Norwegian Early, Middle and Late Mesolithic sites and assemblages. Since 1998, Torben has dealt with numerous Mesolithic sites and assemblages from all parts of Scotland, and lately he has focused on the discovery of Scottish LUP sites, assemblages, and individual finds and, with the late Alan Saville of National Museums Scotland he published the Federmesser-Gruppen site of Kilmelfort Cave, Argyll; with Hein Bjerck, University of Trondheim, the unique LUP Fosna-Hensbacka point from Brodgar on Orkney; and with Headland Archaeology Ltd. the LUP site of Milltimber, Aberdeenshire. Torben has recently published a number of papers in which he discussed how to recognize individual LUP finds and assemblages on the basis of their technological attributes, when no diagnostic types are present.

The following co-authors took part in the production of the Howburn monograph: The late Alan Saville, National Museums Scotland; Richard Tipping, University of Stirling; Tam Ward, Biggar Archaeology Group; Rupert Housley, Royal Holloway, University of London; Lucy Verrill, University of Stirling; Matthew Bradley, University of Stirling; Clare Wilson, University of Stirling; Paul Lincoln, University of Portsmouth; and Alison MacLeod, University of Reading.
NEW: La ocupación cazadora-recolectora durante la transición Pleistoceno-Holoceno en el oeste de Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil: geoarqueología de los sitios en la formación sedimentaria Touro Passo by Viviane Pouey Vidal. Paperback; 203x276mm; xviii+238 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. Spanish text (Print RRP £55.00). 57 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784919139. £55.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784919146. Book contents pageDownload

This book presents the results obtained during geoarchaeological studies carried out in the locality of Touro Passo, municipality of Uruguaiana, Brazil. There, the Paleoindian sites studied by the team of the PRONAPA-National Archaeological Research Program in the 1960s and 1970s were relocated and others with excellent study potential have been recognized. The archaeological sites are located in the alluvial plains of the Uruguay River and the Touro Passo Stream and correspond to the late Pleistocene-early Holocene transition.

The geoarchaeological approach allowed the understanding of the stratigraphic sequence and the processes of formation and post-depositional disturbance of the archaeological sites in a fluvial environment. Archaeological excavations, soundings, stratigraphic profile surveys, sequence correlations and numerical dates were carried out. The dispersion of artifacts on the surface and cave erosion was recorded, and a lithic taphonomy study was carried out. Four Paleoindian sites located in the Touro Passo Formation were analyzed: Barranca Grande, RS-I-66: Milton Almeida, RS-I-69: Laranjito and Casualidade. The new chronologies obtained for the initial period of human occupation in the region represent a scientific advance for the study of hunter-gatherer occupations during the Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene in the triple border of Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay.

About the Author
Viviane Pouey Vidal has a PhD in Archaeology (Faculty of Social Sciences, UNICEN-National University of the Center of the Province of Buenos Aires-Olavarría). She is a researcher at the GEGAL - Group of Geoarchaeological Studies of Latin America. She was a PhD Fellow abroad by the CAPES - Coordination of Improvement of Higher Level Personnel. She acted as University teacher in the Interdisciplinary Degree Course in Human Sciences at UNIPAMPA - Federal University of Pampa, São Borja Campus / Rio Grande do Sul (2015/2017). She is a member of the Frontier Relations Research Group: History, Politics and Culture in the Triple Frontier Brazil and Uruguay (CNPq-Federal University of Pampa). She is the author of the PPC- Pedagogical Project of the Bachelor's Degree Course in Archaeology that aims to be implemented in the UNIPAMPA. She acts as a consultant in archaeological and patrimonial research in environmental licensing, with experience in Precolonial research and Patrimonial Education.

Spanish Description: Este libro presenta los resultados obtenidos durante los estudios geoarqueológicos realizados en la localidad Touro Passo, municipio de Uruguaiana, Brasil. Alli se reubicaron los sitios paleoindios estudiados por el equipo del PRONAPA-Programa Nacional de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en las décadas de 1960 y 1970 y han sido reconocidos otros con excelente potencial de estudio. Los sitios arqueológicos están situados en las planicies aluviales del Río Uruguay y del Arroyo Touro Passo y corresponden a la transición Pleistoceno tardío-Holoceno temprano.

El enfoque geoarqueológico permitió la comprensión de la secuencia estratigráfica y los procesos de formación y perturbación postdepositacional de los sitios arqueológicos en ambiente fluvial. Fueron realizadas excavaciones arqueológicas, sondeos, relevamiento de perfiles-estratigráficos, correlaciones de secuencias y fechados numéricos. Se registró la dispersión de los artefactos en superficie y en las cárvavas de erosión, y se realizó, un estudio de tafonomía lítica. Se analizaron 4 sitios paleoindios situados en la Formación Touro Passo: Barranca Grande, RS-I-66:Milton Almeida, RS-I-69: Laranjito y Casualidade. Las nuevas cronologías obtenidas para el período inicial de ocupación humana en la región, representan un avance científico para el estudio de las ocupaciones cazadoras-recolectoras durante el Pleistoceno tardío-Holoceno temprano en la triple frontera Brasil, Argentina y Uruguay.

Biografía da autora: Viviane P
NEW: Navigation et installations lacustres dans les hautes terres du Mexique les cas mexica et tarasque by Alexandra Biar. Paperback; 203x276mm; xvi+292 pages; 217 illustrations; 33 tables (119 colour plates). French text with English summary and foreword (Print RRP £60.00). 54 2018 Paris Monographs in American Archaeology 50. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784919092. £60.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784919108. Book contents pageDownload

In a cultural area where geography conspires against ease of exchange, Mesoamerican societies discovered technical answers adapted to their needs. At a time when the exchange of merchandise and goods relied mainly on human transport, some civilizations turned to a mystical aquatic environment: lakes. This research focuses on the practice of lake navigation and specific facilities that are associated with it. Due to the need for a wholistic approach, this research is situated in a multidisciplinary framework that combines archaeology, ethnology and ethnohistory. Its primary objective is to elaborate the framework of a new research field from the analytical and systematic study of a corpus of eclectic data, about the exploitation of water as a means of transport.

In Mesoamerica, the greatest concentration of lake systems lies in the Mexican highlands. However, only the Mexico and Pátzcuaro Basin were converted into real political economic and cultural centres, with the emergence of the Mexica Empire and Tarascan State in the Late Postclassic period (1350-1521). Why then do archaeologists, ethnologists and historians persist in ignoring the true importance of navigation in their study of the formation and organization of these two civilizations? To what extent can we extract, from the study of boats and lake installations, data that can open new research perspectives?

French description: Dans une aire culturelle où la géographie conspire contre la fluidité des échanges, les sociétés mésoaméricaines ont su trouver des réponses techniques adaptées à leurs besoins. À une époque où l’acheminement de marchandises et de biens s’effectue principalement à dos d’homme, certaines civilisations vont se tourner vers un milieu aquatique mythique : les lacs. Ce travail de recherche s’intéresse donc à la pratique de la navigation lacustre et aux installations spécifiques qui lui sont associées. De par la nécessité d’une approche transversale, ce sujet se positionne dans un cadre pluridisciplinaire, entremêlant archéologie, ethnohistoire et ethnologie. Son objectif premier est de délimiter le cadre d’un nouveau champ de recherche à partir d’une étude analytique et systématique d’un corpus de données éclectiques, autour de l’exploitation d’un mode de transport aquatique.

En Mésoamérique, c’est dans les hautes terres mexicaines que seuls les lacs des Bassins de Mexico et de Pátzcuaro ont été convertis en de véritables centres politiques, économiques et culturels à l’origine de l’émergence de l’Empire mexica et du Royaume tarasque à la période Postclassique (1350-1521). Pourquoi archéologues, historiens et ethnologues continuent donc d’ignorer la véritable importance de la navigation dans l’étude de la formation et de l’organisation de ces deux civilisations ? Dans quelle mesure les données que nous pourrons extraire de l’étude des embarcations et des installations lacustres peuvent-elles ouvrir de nouvelles perspectives de recherches ?
NEW: The Population of Tikal: Implications for Maya Demography by David Webster. Paperback; 203x276mm; vi+152 pages; 22 illustrations, 13 tables (Print edition RRP £34.00). 48 2018 Paris Monographs in American Archaeology 49. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784918453. £34.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784918460. Book contents pageDownload

The Classic Maya (AD 250-900) of central and southern Yucatan were long seen as exceptional in many ways. We now know that they did not invent Mesoamerican writing or calendars, that they were just as warlike as other ancient peoples, that many innovations in art and architecture attributed to them had diverse origins, and that their celebrated “collapse” is not what it seems. One exceptionalist claim stubbornly persists: the Maya were canny tropical ecologists who managed their fragile tropical environments in ways that supported extremely large and dense populations and still guaranteed resilience and sustainability. Archaeologists commonly assert that Maya populations far exceeded those of other ancient civilizations in the Old and New Worlds. The great center of Tikal, Guatemala, has been central to our conceptions of Maya demography since the 1960s. Re-evaluation of Tikal’s original settlement data and its implications, supplemented by much new research there and elsewhere, allows a more modest and realistic demographic evaluation. The peak Classic population probably was on the order of 1,000,000 people. This population scale helps resolve debates about how the Maya made a living, the nature of their sociopolitical systems, how they created an impressive built environment, and places them in plausible comparative context with what we know about other ancient complex societies.

About the Author
DAVID WEBSTER received his doctoral degree in anthropology from the University of Minnesota in 1972. He originally intended to become a Near Eastern archaeologist, but he was deflected into Mesoamerican archaeology by the opportunity to work at the fortified site of Becan, Campeche, Mexico. This experience stimulated a long interest in warfare among the Classic Maya and other complex societies. His field work and research included projects in Mexico, Honduras, and Guatemala, and heavily focused on settlement survey, household archaeology, demographic reconstruction, and human ecology. Webster joined the faculty of the Anthropology Department at Penn State University in 1972 and spent his career there until his retirement in 2014. He is now emeritus professor at Penn State, where he continues an active program of writing and research.

Table of Contents
Introduction; A Short History of Maya Demographic Estimates and their Implications; Comparative Demographic Estimates for Other Civilizations; University of Pennsylvania Tikal Project Population Estimates; The “Managed Forest” Model for the Lowland Maya: Implications for Tikal; Biases and Limitations of the Tikal Research and some Comparisons with Copan; How Many Maya Lived in the Central and Southern Lowlands during Late and Terminal Classic Times? ; Discussion and Conclusions; Appendix A: Population Density Calculations; Appendix B: The Big Stuff; Appendix C: Agricultural Intensification; Appendix D: Maya Food Shortfalls and Their Consequences; Appendix E: Agrarian Capital, Land Tenure, Inheritance, Entitlements, and Agency; Appendix F: Classic Maya Political Organization and Institutions; Appendix G: Malthus, Boserup, and the Maya References cited
NEW: Current Research in Egyptology 2017 Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Symposium: University of Naples, “L’Orientale” 3–6 May 2017 edited by Ilaria Incordino, Stefania Mainieri, Elena D’Itria, Maria Diletta Pubblico, Francesco Michele Rega, Anna Salsano. Paperback; 203x276mm; 238 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (75 colour plates). 56 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784919054. £45.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784919061. Book contents pageDownload

Current Research in Egyptology 2017 presents papers delivered during the eighteenth meeting of this international conference, held at the University of Naples “L’Orientale”, 3–6 May, 2017. Some 122 scholars from all over the world gathered in Naples to attend three simultaneous sessions of papers and posters, focussed on a large variety of subjects: Graeco-Roman and Byzantine Egypt, Nubian Studies, Language and Texts, Art and Architecture, Religion and Cult, Field Projects, Museums and Archives, Material Culture, Mummies and Coffins, Society, Technologies applied to Egyptology, Environment. The participants attended seven keynote presentations given by Rosanna Pirelli (Egyptologist), Irene Bragantini (Roman Archaeologist) and Andrea Manzo (Nubian Archaeologist) from the University of Naples “L’Orientale”; Marilina Betrò (Egyptologist) from Pisa University; Patrizia Piacentini (Egyptologist) from Milan University; Christian Greco (Director of Turin Egyptian Museum) and Daniela Picchi (Archaeological Museum of Bologna). Delegates were able to take advantage of a guided tour of the Oriental Museum Umberto Scerrato (University of Naples “L’Orientale”), access to the National Archaeological Museum of Naples (MANN) and guided tours of the archaeological site of Pompeii and the Gaiola Underwater Park. The editors dedicate this volume to the late Prof. Claudio Barocas who inaugurated the teaching of Egyptology and Coptic Language and Literature in Naples.
From tentscape to landscape: a multi-scale analysis of long-term patterns of occupation in north-west Qatar Taken from Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies Volume 48 2018 edited by Julian Jansen van Rensburg, Harry Munt, Tim Power, and Janet Starkey. Pages 31-45.Download

By Jose C. Carvajal López et al

This paper presents the main results of The Crowded Desert Project (TCD) survey during the 2017 season concerning the distribution, orientation, and strategic location of campsites in the area under study. After explaining the evidence recorded in the field, the article proposes an archaeological interpretation based on ethnographic models provided by Ferdinand (1993) and Montigny (1979; 1983; 1985), and on archaeological models advanced by Macumber (2016) and McPhillips, Rosendahl and Morgan (2015). Although ethnoarchaeology is criticized nowadays, it is suggested in this paper that a careful methodology built on the correlation of material evidence and relevant ethnographical data (e.g. Guérin 1994) can provide significant results to interpret the archaeological record of the area of study. The results provide interesting insights regarding the long-term continuity of the structural principles that guide the strategies of the design and location of nomadic campsites at least between AD 400–300 and the twentieth century.

Keywords: Qatar, desert archaeology, archaeology of the nomads, landscape archaeology, ethnoarchaeology
Gardens of Istanbul in Persian hajj travelogues Taken from Travellers in Ottoman Lands edited by Ines Aščerić-Todd, Sabina Knees, Janet Starkey and Paul Starkey. Pages 57-68.Download

By Güllü Yıldız

Writing travelogues, safarnāmahs, about general expeditions and for hajj journeys, became popular among Persian intellectuals and statesmen in the Qajar era (1795–1925). This chapter, dealing with various hajj travelogues from that period, will focus on conveying the impressions of Persian pilgrims who chose the Istanbul route, on the city’s gardens, including palace, house, and public gardens and promenades. In general, pilgrims narrated their visits to these gardens with detailed descriptions of their architecture, flora, and social and cultural uses.

This chapter also aims to reach some conclusions about how they saw and perceived Istanbul and the Ottoman Empire through the medium of their narratives about gardens, by taking into consideration the relationship between place and culture as one of the elements in which individual and collective identities were constructed. It will aim to demonstrate that Ottoman gardens were seen by Persian pilgrims as a sign of ‘progress’ during the second half of the nineteenth and at the beginning of the twentieth century.

Keywords: Istanbul, Ottoman gardens, hajj travelogues, Qajar era, pilgrims
Entangled Relations over Geographical and Gendered Space: Multi-Component Personal Ornaments at Hasanlu Taken from Composite Artefacts in the Ancient Near East edited by Silvana Di Paolo. Pages 51-61.Download

By Megan Cifarelli

Hasanlu, in Northwestern Iran, is best known for its catastrophic destruction ca. 800 BC, likely at the hands of the Urartian army. Excavations of the site revealed more than 100 burials from the period leading up to the destruction, Hasanlu Period IVb (1050–800 BC). Among these burials are five adult women decorated with multicomponent personal ornaments consisting of repurposed copper alloy or iron armour scales with attached garment pins, stone, shell and composite beads, and copper alloy tubes of various lengths. If worn on the body during life, these objects would have been both visually and aurally conspicuous. Bead and tube elements are typical of the material culture of Hasanlu, used in mortuary jewellery from the Middle Bronze Age forward. The armour scales, however, are found only in these few female burials at Hasanlu. In the broader ancient Near East, scale armour is associated with representations of male bodies in military contexts, and is found archaeologically in military, palatial, cultic and mortuary contexts. These particular scales are characteristic of regions to Hasanlu’s north (the South Caucasus) and east (the Caspian littoral). This paper proposes that the creation of composite objects from these parts— fragments of masculine armour, components of personal adornment, and sound making tubes—entangled people and things across gendered and geographical boundaries.
NEW: Visualizing cityscapes of Classical antiquity: from early modern reconstruction drawings to digital 3D models With a case study from the ancient town of Koroneia in Boeotia, Greece by Chiara Piccoli. Paperback; 203x276mm; xiv+314 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (100 colour plates). 53 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784918897. £59.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784918903. Book contents pageDownload

The amount of 3D modelling applications in archaeology has increased enormously over the last decade. 3D recording techniques allow researchers to quickly and accurately document archaeological evidence, and 3D reconstructions have created new possibilities to communicate the results to a larger public. In this latter case, however, numerous scholars have expressed their concern regarding the ethics of such digital representations, since they give prominence to a crystallized image of the past and do not account for the complexity of the archaeological record. The study presented here aims to make a practical contribution to a new understanding and use of 3D reconstructions, namely as ‘laboratories’ to test hypotheses and visualize, evaluate and discuss alternative interpretations.

In order to do so, an analysis of visual reconstructions of the early and late modern period is presented first, followed by a discussion of current applications of 3D digital reconstructions, with a special focus on cityscapes. Lastly, a practical implementation of a research-driven, intellectually transparent and GIS-based 3D reconstruction is proposed for the urban site of Koroneia, in Boeotia, Central Greece. Specifically, the methodology developed in this work uses tools that are employed in geo-design and modern urban planning in an innovative way, integrating GIS with a rule-based modelling approach. With a strong focus on the automation and iteration of the reconstruction process, our 3D visualization provides an intuitive insight into hidden relationships and associations among data, and allows the creation and evaluation of alternative reconstruction hypotheses.

About the Author
CHIARA PICCOLI is an Italian archaeologist currently employed as a staff member of the Digital Archaeology Research group at the Faculty of Archaeology in Leiden, The Netherlands. Her expertise lies in the applications of 3D modelling techniques and 2D-3D GIS to visualize and analyse archaeological evidence. Her research interests include urban studies, visual studies, and the exploitation of digital tools and new technologies for documentation, visualization, analysis and dissemination. She has participated in several excavations and surveys in Italy, Greece and Morocco. Chiara holds a BA in Cultural Heritage (University of Trento), an MA in Greek and Roman Archaeology (University of Siena) and an MA in Book and Digital Media Studies (Leiden University). She received the Tiele-Stichting Thesis Prize 2011 for the best MA dissertation in the field of Book History in the Netherlands.
New Proposal for the Location of Ancient Turanu (URU tu-ra-nu) Taken from Ash-sharq: Bulletin of the Ancient Near East Vol 2 No 1 edited by Laura Battini. Pages 83-84.Download

By Adonice-Ackad Baaklini

The city Turanu (URU tu-ra-nu) is one of the cities conquered by Tiglath-pileser III during his repression of the rebellion leaded by Azriau (king of Hamath?) in the northern part of Hamath and some northern Phoenician states in 738 BCE (RINAP 1: Tiglath-pileser III, 43, ii 16-24; the city is quoted l. 23). Based on the geographical context and the phonological rapprochement, Turmanin (scientific transcription from arabic: turmānīn) was proposed as a candidate for locating the ancient city (Lipinski 2000: 296; quoted also in Bagg 2007: 262).
Creativity versus Taboo in Late Bronze Age Central and Southeast Europe Taken from Considering Creativity: Creativity, Knowledge and Practice in Bronze Age Europe edited by Joanna Sofaer. Pages 39-54.Download

By Carola Metzner-Nebelsick

Creativity is clearly a strong force affecting material culture in general. Nonetheless, when one considers Bronze Age artefacts, it is surprising that over a long course of time certain artefact types in fact change very little. They are thus easily identified as belonging to the Bronze Age - a period lasting nearly for 1500 years. In this contribution I focus on two aspects of creativity: the aesthetic and the technical. I also try to address the phenomenon of traditionalism, which in my view is a prominent feature of the Bronze Age. Tradition is marked by a group of artefact types which, in contrast to creativity and innovation, retain their form and function over centuries within the otherwise changing aesthetic concepts of Bronze Age cultures in Europe. These traditional aspects can, in part, be seen as deliberate and therefore as a taboo concerning creative approaches towards materials and artefacts. I try to explore why these patterns and this obvious dichotomy exist. In order to better understand what is special about creativity in Late Bronze Age Central and Southeast Europe I want to begin by reviewing developments in the Early and Middle Bronze Age.
Creativity and Knowledge Taken from Considering Creativity: Creativity, Knowledge and Practice in Bronze Age Europe edited by Joanna Sofaer. Pages 5-17.Download

By Bengt Molander

The most dominant modern epistemologies focus on human beliefs and theories about the world and take texts as the ultimate expressions of knowledge. I will sketch an alternative epistemological framework, suited for understanding skill and insight (‘knowledge’) in human creative practices. In this framework human actions and made objects are seen as a basic expression of knowledge, not reducible to, or inferior to, linguistic expressions. Skill and insight in human practices, I will argue, are to be understood as forms of attentiveness in practice, and ‘good knowledge’ is what leads to the best for human beings. Attentiveness lives by differences, seeing differences and producing differences, for example in the form of art or craft objects. I will explore this as an epistemological framework for understanding both creative practices in a (pre)historic setting and contemporary creative answers to, or continuations of, old practices.
Guilty or Innocent? The Buckingham vs. Bankes Libel Trial of 1826 Taken from Lost and Now Found: Explorers, Diplomats and Artists in Egypt and the Near East edited by Neil Cooke and Vanessa Daubney. Pages 183-203.Download

By Don Boyer

The early 19th-century English traveller and adventurer William John Bankes spent almost five years visiting and recording ancient sites in the Levant. He was in Egypt and Nubia for much of this time, but he also visited Palestine and Syria. While in Palestine, in early 1816, he made a short side trip to Jerash (Jarash) and Umm Qais (Gadara) east of the Jordan, in the company of James Silk Buckingham. The trip proved to be historically interesting but was otherwise unremarkable in the context of his other travels; however, there were unexpected ramifications.
London’s Waterfront 1100–1666: excavations in Thames Street, London, 1974–84 by John Schofield, Lyn Blackmore and Jacqui Pearce, with Tony Dyson. Hardback; 210x297mm; xxiv+514 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (132 colour plates). English text with summaries in French and German. 422 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784918378. £90.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784918385. Book contents pageDownload

London’s Waterfront 1100–1666: excavations in Thames Street, London, 1974–84 presents and celebrates the mile-long Thames Street in the City of London and the land south of it to the River Thames as an archaeological asset. The argument is based on the reporting of four excavations of 1974–84 by the Museum of London near the north end of London Bridge: Swan Lane, Seal House, New Fresh Wharf and Billingsgate Lorry Park. Here the findings of the period 1100–1666 are presented.

Buildings and property development on sixteen properties south of Thames Street, on land reclaimed in many stages since the opening of the 12th century, include part of the parish church of St Botolph Billingsgate. The many units of land reclamation are dated by dendrochronology, coins and documents. They have produced thousands of artefacts and several hundred kilos of native and foreign pottery. Much of this artefactual material has been published, but in catalogue form (shoes, knives, horse fittings, dress accessories, textiles, household equipment). Now the context of these finds, their deposition in groups, is laid out for the first time. Highlights of the publication include the first academic analysis and assessment of a 13th- or 14th-century trumpet from Billingsgate, the earliest surviving straight trumpet in Europe; many pilgrim souvenirs; analysis of two drains of the 17th century from which suggestions can be made about use of rooms and spaces within documented buildings; and the proposal that one of the skeletons excavated from St Botolph’s church is John Reynewell, mayor of London in 1426–7 and a notable figure in London’s medieval history.

The whole publication encourages students and other researchers of all kinds to conduct further research on any aspect of the sites and their very rich artefactual material, which is held at the Museum of London’s Archaeological Archive. This is a significantly large and varied dataset for the archaeology and history of London in the period 1100 to 1666 which can be continuously interrogated for generations to come.

About the Authors
JOHN SCHOFIELD was an archaeologist at the Museum of London from 1974 to 2008. He has written several well-received books on the archaeology of London and of British medieval towns; and as Cathedral Archaeologist for St Paul’s Cathedral, archaeological accounts of the medieval and Wren buildings.

LYN BLACKMORE is a Senior Ceramics and Finds Specialist who has worked for MOLA and its predecessors since 1986. During this time she has established the Anglo-Saxon fabric type series for London, has contributed to the Type-Series of London Medieval Pottery and has published widely on aspects of post- Roman pottery. Her special research interests are the development of London and the role of local, regional and imported pottery and finds in trade and exchange. In 2009–14 she was Assistant Treasurer of the Medieval Pottery Research Group and in 2017 was elected co-editor of its journal Medieval Ceramics, a role she first held in 1989–94.

JACQUI PEARCE is a Senior Ceramics Specialist with MOLA, focusing especially on medieval and later pottery, on which she has published widely. She joined the Museum of London’s Department of Urban Archaeology in 1977 and has played a major role in the development and publication of the Type-Series of London Medieval Pottery. She has served as Joint Editor of Medieval Ceramics, as well as of Post-Medieval Archaeology and is currently Joint Editor of English Ceramic Circle Transactions. In 2017 she was elected President of the Society for Post-Medieval Archaeology.

TONY DYSON was the principal documentary historian and general editor at the Department of Urban Archaeology of the Museum of London from 1974 to 1998.

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Special Place, Interesting Times: The island of Palagruža and transitional periods in Adriatic prehistory by Stašo Forenbaher with contributions by Zlatko Perhoč and Robert H. Tykot. x+194 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (60 colour plates). 421 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784918491. £34.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784918507. Book contents pageDownload

While one might say that the prehistory of the Adriatic was always in transition, the rhythm of change was not always the same. On several occasions, a series of changes over a relatively short time period resulted in dramatic transformations. Three crucial episodes of change marked the later Adriatic prehistory. The first one, which took place around year 6000 BC, was a transformation of subsistence strategy, transition from hunting and gathering to farming. The second one was a social transformation that played out in the third millennium BC, when for the first time the power of individuals was clearly expressed by material culture. The third episode, inclusion into the classic Mediterranean civilization, coincided with the end of prehistory in the Adriatic region.

During all of those episodes, travel and connectivity with distant lands played an exceptionally important role, and certain places gained particular importance due to their unique geographic location. Palagruža is among the most prominent such places, its importance being out of all proportion to its physical size. Adriatic prehistory cannot be told without mentioning Palagruža, and prehistory of Palagruža cannot be understood without knowing Adriatic prehistory. Due to its strategic position in the very center of the Adriatic Sea, due to the mystery born of distance and isolation, due to its wild and spectacular landscape, Palagruža indeed is a special place. A reflection of its specialty is an unexpected abundance of high-grade archaeological evidence, dating precisely from the three aforementioned periods marked by radical change.

About the Author
STAŠO FORENBAHER is Senior Research Advisor at the Institute for Anthropological Research in Zagreb, Croatia. He studied archaeology at the University of Zagreb (Croatia), and received his PhD from the Southern Methodist University in Dallas (TX). His research interests cover Mediterranean Prehistory with a focus on the Adriatic, and include transition to farming, formation of early elites, archaeology of caves, and lithic analysis. He has excavated at many prehistoric stratified cave sites in the eastern Adriatic, including Pupićina Cave in Istria, Vaganačka Cave in Velebit Mountain, Grapčeva Cave on the island of Hvar, and Nakovana Cave on Pelješac Peninsula. His current fieldwork is focussed on the excavation of Vela Cave on the island of Korčula.
Gifts, Goods and Money: Comparing currency and circulation systems in past societies edited by Dirk Brandherm, Elon Heymans and Daniela Hofmann. vi+228 pages; 73 figures (30 colour plates). 416 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784918354. £34.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784918361. Book contents pageDownload

The papers gathered in this volume explore the economic and social roles of exchange systems in past societies from a variety of different perspectives. Based on a broad range of individual case studies, the authors tackle problems surrounding the identification of (pre-monetary) currencies in the archaeological record. These concern the part played by weight measurement systems in their development, the changing role of objects as they shift between different spheres of exchange, e.g. from gifts to commodities, as well as wider issues regarding the role of exchange networks as agents of social and economic change. Among the specific questions the papers address is what happens when new objects of value are introduced into a system, or when existing objects go out of use, as well as how exchange systems react to events such as crises or the emergence of new polities and social constellations. One theme that unites most of the papers is the tension between what is introduced from the outside and changes that are driven by social transformations within a given group.

About the Editors
DIRK BRANDHERM studied Archaeology, Classics and Social Anthropology at the universities of Münster, Edinburgh and Freiburg. Most of his work has been in European Bronze and Iron Age archaeology, with one focus on metalwork production and depositional practices. He currently holds a position of Lecturer at Queen’s University Belfast, Northern Ireland.

ELON HEYMANS studied archaeology at the University of Amsterdam and at Tel Aviv University. He completed his PhD in Tel Aviv on the early history of money in the eastern Mediterranean Iron Age, and is currently a postdoctoral researcher at Utrecht University. His focus lies on the archaeology of Greece and the southern Levant, and he is particularly interested in the social, political and historical context of early money use.

DANIELA HOFMANN has obtained her PhD from Cardiff University and is currently Junior Professor at Hamburg University, Germany. She has published extensively on funerary archaeology, as well as the figurines and domestic architecture of the central European Neolithic, but she is also interested in instances of structured deposition and in spheres of exchange.
Life on the Edge: The Neolithic and Bronze Age of Iain Crawford’s Udal, North Uist edited by Beverley Ballin Smith. Hardback; xxxii+270 pages; highly illustrated in full colour throughout. 408 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784917708. £25.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784917715. Book contents pageDownload

The discovery of archaeological structures in North Uist in 1974 after storm damage led to the identification by Iain Crawford of a kerb cairn complex, with a cist and human remains. Six years later he went back, and over the next three years excavated another cist with human remains in its kerbed cairn, many bowl pits dug into the blown sand, and down to two late Neolithic structures and a ritual complex. He intensively studied the environmental conditions affecting the site and was among the first archaeologists in Scotland to understand the climate changes taking place at the transition between late Neolithic and the early Bronze Age. The deposition of blown sand and the start of the machair in the Western Isles, including the rise in sea-level and inundations into inhabited and farmed landscapes, are all part of the complex story of natural events and human activities.

Radiocarbon dating and modern scientific analyses provide the detail of the story of periods of starvation suffered by the people that were buried on the site, of the movement away of the community, of their attempts of bringing the ‘new’ land back into cultivation, of a temporary tent-like structure, and of marking their territory by the construction of enduring monuments to the dead.

About the Editor
BEVERLEY BALLIN SMITH took up the mantle left by Iain Crawford and has brought this first monograph on his Udal project area to publication. She has extensive experience of working on, and publishing, other large multi-period sites. She is an archaeologist who lived and worked on Orkney for many years and has first-hand experience of the archaeology of Shetland, the UK, Faroes, Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and is now based in Scotland. Beverley is the Publications Manager at GUARD Archaeology Ltd and editor of ARO (Archaeology Reports Online), with the aim of disseminating information to relevant audiences. She undertakes specialist analysis of prehistoric pottery and coarse stone tools. She has been a member of the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists for nearly all her professional life; she served on the former IfA Council, was Vice Chair for Outreach, a member of the Validation Committee and was a CIfA Board director. She is a member of the Society of Antiquaries of London and also a member of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, where she has been Vice President. She is currently President of Archaeology Scotland and a Research Associate at National Museums Scotland.
KYMISSALA: Archaeology – Education – Sustainability by Manolis I. Stefanakis. xii+192 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. Papers in English and Greek.. 52 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784917685. £42.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784917692. Book contents pageDownload

The area of Kymissala on the southwest coast of Rhodes is of great archaeological interest, as it conceals a large number of important archaeological sites belonging to the lesser known ancient deme of the Rhodian countryside, the deme of Kymissaleis. The region is also of exceptional environmental and ecological importance, as it has a particular biodiversity and is protected by the European ‘Natura 2000’ network of nature protection areas.

Kymissala has systematically been researched during the past 10 years by the Kymissala Archaeological Research Project (KARP) inaugurated by the Department of Mediterranean Studies and the Ephorate of Antiquities of the Dodecanese in 2006.

The research, escaping from its narrow academic and archaeological context and exploiting the comparative advantage of the region, may –and should– inter alia, intervene in a mild and sustainable manner in the promotion of the archaeological site of Kymissala. Its ultimate goal is to promote the antiquities of the area, its educational value and its historical and cultural continuity within a protected natural environment, in the context of an ecological-archaeological park.

Under the title Kymissala: Archaeology – Education – Sustainability, fourteen original studies have been published, constituting the first complete presentation of the area of Kymissala and the work in progress, after ten years of systematic research, in terms of Archaeology, Education and Sustainable Development.

About the Author
Manolis I. Stefanakis is an Associate Professor in Classical Archaeology and Numismatics in the Department of Mediterranean Studies, University of the Aegean. Director of Postgraduate Studies in ‘Archaeology of the Eastern Mediterranean from the Prehistoric Era to the Late Antiquity: Greece, Egypt, Near East’.

Director of the University of the Aegean Archaeological Research in Kymissala, Rhodes (held in collaboration with the Ephorate of Antiquities of the Dodecanese) since 2006. Co-director (with Professor Nikolaos Stampolidis) of the University of the Aegean excavation (held in collaboration with the Ephorate of Antiquities of Rethymno) of the fortified citadel of Orne in Retymno, Crete, since 2016.

Co-founder and Publishing Director (with Dr. Nikos Litinas) of the annual scientific journal Eulimene: Studies in Classical Archaeology, Epigraphy, Numismatics and Papyrology, Rethymno: Mediterranean Archaeological Society (ISSN 1108-5800) and of Eulimene Series of Independent Publications, Rethymno: Mediterranean Archaeological Society. Co-founder and Publishing Director (with Assistant Professor Sotiris Ntalis) of the annual scientific journal Yearbook of Mediterranean Studies, Rhodes.

His research interests focus on Field Archaeology, Classical Archaeology, Ancient Greek Numismatics, Archaeology and Sustainability.
Colecciones, arqueólogos, instituciones y yacimientos en la España de los siglos XVIII al XX edited by Sergio España-Chamorro, Rebeca Arranz Santos, Alberto Romero Molero. xii+246 pages; illustrated throughout in color and black & white (71 colour plates). 50 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784918637. £50.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784918644. Book contents pageDownload

The History of archaeological research has only recently become a research topic of interest within Spain. A congress, Colecciones, arqueólogos, instituciones y yacimientos en la España de los Siglos XVIII al XX, was held at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid in 2016 designed to bring this topic to the fore. Eleven papers are presented in this proceedings volume. They address several aspects from different perspectives that collectively enrich the historiography of Spanish archaeological research.

La Historia de las investigaciones arqueológicas es un campo de estudio muy reciente en el caso español. No obstante, las últimas décadas han sido muy fructíferas en esta línea de investigación. Colecciones, arqueólogos, instituciones y yacimientos en la España de los Siglos XVIII al XX es un volumen que recoge ese testigo con once trabajos originales que traen a la primera línea la historiografía de la Arqueología española. Estos trabajos, fruto de un congreso homónimo realizado en la Universidad Complutense de Madrid en 2016, abordan diferentes temas y perspectivas que abarcan importantes aspectos de la temática tratada con una variedad geográfica que atiende la diversidad y riqueza de la historiografía arqueológica española.

EDITORES
SERGIO ESPAÑA-CHAMORRO es doctor en Estudios del Mundo Antiguo por la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Actualmente es investigador posdoctoral en la Escuela Española de Historia y Arqueología en Roma (CSIC) y profesor adjunto en la Universidad Isabel I. Sus líneas de investigación versan sobre Arqueología del Paisaje centrándose en la Bética y en Italia, además de su participación en proyectos de investigación sobre el espacio doméstico en Pompeya y la escultura romana en Cartago. Ha realizado estancias de investigación en el Departamento de Arqueología de la University of Southampton, en el centro CIL de la Berlin-Brandenburgischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, en la Università degli Studi di Bari ‘Aldo Moro’ y en el Musei dei Fori Imperiali-Mercati di Traiano (Roma).

Rebeca Arranz Santos es graduada en Historia del Arte por la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, y posee un máster en Arqueología del Mediterráneo en la Antigüedad clásica por la misma universidad. Compagina su doctorando en Historia y Arqueología con su colaboración como profesora en el Centro de Estudios Artísticos Elba, donde imparte cursos de Arqueología de Grecia, Arqueología de Roma y Arte de Mesopotamia y del Mediterráneo Oriental. Es miembro del grupo de trabajo del Proyecto I+D+I de la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. Además, ha realizado una estancia de doctorado en Escuela Española de Historia y Arqueología en Roma.

Alberto Romero Molero es doctor en Prehistoria, Arqueología y Patrimonio por la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Actualmente es director del Grado en Historia y Geografía de la Universidad Isabel I. Ha formado parte de numerosos proyectos de investigación, tanto nacionales como en el extranjero, lo que le ha permitido asistir y organizar numerosos seminarios, congresos, cursos y eventos de difusión científica. Sus líneas de investigación se centran en la arquitectura romana, el estudio de las técnicas constructivas, el análisis arqueológico de los espacios domésticos y la historia de las investigaciones arqueológicas. Ha desarrollado trabajos de campo, tanto de excavación como de documentación, en Carteia (San Roque, Cádiz), Baelo Claudia (Tarifa, Cádiz), Banasa (Marruecos), Veio y Pompeya (Italia).
SOMA 2015: Time, Space and People Proceedings of the 19th Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology edited by Murat Arslan. iv+190 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (69 colour plates). 49 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784918514. £44.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784918521. Book contents pageDownload

The 19th annual meeting of the Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology (SOMA) was held in Kemer/Antalya (Turkey) from the 12th to the 14th of November, 2015. As has been the case in the past, this symposium continues to provide an important opportunity for scholars and researchers to come together and discuss their academic studies in a friendly and supportive atmosphere. The proceedings of SOMA 2015 contain eighteen interdisciplinary articles on themes from underwater archaeology to history, archaeometry and art history, and chronologically, the subjects of these articles range from the Bronze Age to the 20th century.

About the Editor
Murat Arslan is the editor of SOMA 2015. He is professor of Ancient History at Akdeniz University in Antalya (Turkey). He is interested in Ancient Greek and Ancient History, especially the Classical and Hellenistic periods, and historiography. In addition to his monographs (Galatians, Mithradates VI Eupator, Classical and Hellenistic History of Byzantion), his translations and commentaries on periplus (Arrianus, Ps. Scylax), and Memnon of Heracleia Pontica, he is the current editor in chief of several international journals (Cedrus, MJH, Phaselis, Libri).
Le classi ceramiche della “tradizione mista” a Kos nel Tardo Bronzo IA by Salvatore Vitale. 208 pages; illustrations in colour and black & white. Italian text.. 51 2018. ISBN 9781784918859. Download

This volume focuses on the pottery classes of the “Entangled Tradition” recovered at the settlement of the “Serraglio” on Kos during the late Bronze Age and into the Iron Age. The results reveal new information on the chronology, typology, and decoration of Koan Painted Fine (PF) and Koan Painted Medium-Coarse to Coarse (PMC-C), ceramics. Moreover, the fresh analysis of the chaîne opératoire used to manufacture these classes and the assessment of consumption patterns contribute to a wider understanding of the socio-cultural and political implications of the Koan pottery assemblage during the early part of the late Bronze Age.

The data presented in this volume indicate that PF and PMC-C ceramics represent a unique case of fully entangled classes in the Aegean, which merged features of the Koan “Local Tradition” with characteristics of the Minoan and Minoanizing potting traditions of Crete and the Cyclades into a new technological and stylistic language. Contacts between these different cultures are explained based on the theoretical model provided by “human mobility”. The specific Koan cultural synthesis, however, was endorsed and promoted by the local elites at the settlement of the “Serraglio”, which aimed to participate in the “new environment” determined by the economic and cultural expansion of Neopalatial Crete.

In this respect, the manufacture of Koan Entangled classes served a dual scope. On the one hand, using transport containers made in the PMC-C class, Koan products were exported and exchanged throughout the Aegean. In addition, the finer vessels of the Koan “Entangled Tradition” were utilized for promoting Minoan-type social practices at the “Serraglio”. Through these practices, Koan elites aimed to redefine their identity and portray an image of higher status within the local social arena.

About the Author
Dr. Salvatore Vitale completed his MA in Classical Literatures and PhD in Classical Archaeology at the University of Pisa in 2001 and 2007 respectively, under the supervision of Professors M. Benzi and Giampaolo Graziadio. After completion of his PhD, Dr. Vitale held post-doctoral and research fellowships at the Universities of Calabria, Cincinnati, and Pisa and at the Italian Archaeological School at Athens.

Since 2009, he has been the director of the “Serraglio, Eleona, and Langada Archaeological Project” (SELAP), a research endeavor carried out under the auspices of the Italian Archaeological School at Athens. The main goal of SELAP is to provide new information on the island of Kos from the Final Neolithic until the Late Protogeometric period.
Problems of Chronology in Gandhāran Art Proceedings of the First International Workshop of the Gandhāra Connections Project, University of Oxford, 23rd-24th March, 2017 edited by Wannaporn Rienjang and Peter Stewart. iv+166 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (56 colour plates). 419 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784918552. £32.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784918569. Book contents pageDownload

Since the beginning of Gandhāran studies in the nineteenth century, chronology has been one of the most significant challenges to the understanding of Gandhāran art. Many other ancient societies, including those of Greece and Rome, have left a wealth of textual sources which have put their fundamental chronological frameworks beyond doubt. In the absence of such sources on a similar scale, even the historical eras cited on inscribed Gandhāran works of art have been hard to place. Few sculptures have such inscriptions and the majority lack any record of find-spot or even general provenance. Those known to have been found at particular sites were sometimes moved and reused in antiquity. Consequently, the provisional dates assigned to extant Gandhāran sculptures have sometimes differed by centuries, while the narrative of artistic development remains doubtful and inconsistent.

Building upon the most recent, cross-disciplinary research, debate and excavation, this volume reinforces a new consensus about the chronology of Gandhāra, bringing the history of Gandhāran art into sharper focus than ever. By considering this tradition in its wider context, alongside contemporary Indian art and subsequent developments in Central Asia, the authors also open up fresh questions and problems which a new phase of research will need to address.

Problems of Chronology in Gandhāran Art is the first publication of the Gandhāra Connections project at the University of Oxford’s Classical Art Research Centre, which has been supported by the Bagri Foundation and the Neil Kreitman Foundation. It presents the proceedings of the first of three international workshops on fundamental questions in the study of Gandhāran art, held at Oxford in March 2017.

About the Editors
WANNAPORN RIENJANG is Project Assistant of the Gandhāra Connections Project at the Classical Art Research Centre, Oxford. She completed her doctoral degree in Archaeology at the University of Cambridge on Buddhist relic cult in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Before starting her PhD, she worked as a research assistant for the Masson Project at the Department of Coins and Medals, the British Museum. Her research interests include the art and archaeology of Greater Gandhāra, Buddhist studies, and working technologies of stone containers and beads.

PETER STEWART is Director of the Classical Art Research Centre and Associate Professor of Classical Art and Archaeology at the University of Oxford. He has worked widely in the field of ancient sculpture. His publications include Statues in Roman Society: Representation and Response (2003) and The Social History of Roman Art (2008). Much of his research concerns the relationship between Gandhāran art and Roman sculpture.
Marcadores gráficos y territorios megalíticos en la Cuenca interior del Tajo: Toledo, Madrid y Guadalajara by Mª Ángeles Lancharro Gutiérrez. 346 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (222 plates in colour). 46 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784917975. £80.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784917982. Book contents pageDownload

The aim of this work is to analyze Late Prehistoric graphical markers, comprising paintings, engravings, Megalithic elements, and other portable objects. All of them can be described as post-paleolithic or Schematic Art over various surfaces. The chosen area, the inland region of the Tajo inner basin (Spain), was especially appealing for several reasons, such as the lack of scholarship on the subject, the lack of information on the geographical location of the archaeological sites, and the extended ignorance about the sites’ materials and relationships.

The methodology is based on systematic registration of all archaeological sites. This is studied from an Archaeology Landscape perspective through Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis. It tests geographical markers according to their strategic location (pre-eminence and visibility) and their relationship with other funerary, habitable and resources sites. This has allowed parietal surfaces (megaliths, caves, shelters) and mobile pieces to be given coordinate position for the first time in the region, which has demonstrated abundant and complex prehistoric graphical markers. The results achieved allow the extrapolation of settlement models, explained in chapter VI. Generally, shelters divide the territory by geographical units where the settlers have access to a variety of economic resources and transit networks.

About the Author
Dr. María Ángeles Lancharro has a BA in History from the University of Alcalá (Spain) and received her PhD in Prehistory from the same university. Her research interests include landscape archaeology, megalithic territories and their symbolism, Prehistoric Rock Art in the Iberian Peninsula and Late Prehistory in the inner basin of the Tajo river. Additionally, she specialises in databases, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and spatial analysis. Her work is focused on territorial analysis from rock shelters, habitats, necropoli, areas of exploitation and resources. Dr. Lancharro has an extensive teaching experience and has participated in several excavations in Spain and southern France aimed at the compared study of Megalithic and Schematic Art. Her findings have been published in different peer-reviewed journals and books, and she has participated in a number of archaeological conferences.

Spanish description:
El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de los marcadores gráficos de la Prehistoria Reciente, entre los que se incluyen pinturas, grabados, elementos megalíticos y elementos mobiliares que responden a la descripción de Arte Esquemático o Postpaleolítico sobre diferentes soportes. Se eligió como zona de estudio la cuenca interior del Tajo a su paso por las provincias interiores (España), de especial interés por su carencia de valoraciones conjuntas y desde luego, por la escasa información acerca del posicionamiento geográfico de estos yacimientos y el desconocimiento bastante generalizado de sus contenidos y relaciones contextuales. El método de trabajo se ha fundamentado en la recogida sistemática de todos los yacimientos registrados. El estudio se ha llevado a cabo con nuevas tecnologías como los Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG), desde una perspectiva de la Arqueología del Paisaje. Se han efectuado diversos análisis establecidos sobre su posición estratégica (preeminencia y visibilidad) y su relación con otros yacimientos de carácter funerario, habitacional y recursos de explotación. Esto ha permitido que los soportes parietales (abrigos, cuevas y megalitos), así como piezas mobiliares, se hayan georreferenciado por primera vez en la región, dando muestras de la abundancia y complejidad de estas grafías prehistóricas.

Los resultados nos han permitido extrapolar modelos de implantación en el territorio, expuestos en el capítulo VI. En general, existe una tendencia a delimitar el territorio en unidades geográficas caracterizadas, en las que las sociedade
From the Fjords to the Nile: Essays in honour of Richard Holton Pierce on his 80th birthday edited by Pål Steiner, Alexandros Tsakos and Eivind Heldaas Seland. iv+118 pages; illustrated throughout in black & white with 7 colour plates. 395 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784917760. £24.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784917777. Book contents pageDownload

From the Fjords to the Nile brings together essays by students and colleagues of Richard Holton Pierce (b. 1935), presented on the occasion of his 80th birthday. It covers topics on the ancient world and the Near East. Pierce is Professor Emeritus of Egyptology at the University of Bergen. Starting out as an expert in Egyptian languages, and of law in Greco-Roman Egypt, his professional interest has spanned from ancient Nubia and Coptic Egypt, to digital humanities and game theory. His contributions as scholar, teacher, supervisor and informal advisor to Norwegian studies in Egyptology, classics, archaeology, history, religion, and linguistics through more than five decades can hardly be overstated.

About the Editors:
Pål Steiner has an MA in Egyptian archaeology from K.U. Leuven and an MA in religious studies from the University of Bergen, where he has been teaching Ancient Near Eastern religions. He has published a collection of Egyptian myths in Norwegian. He is now an academic librarian at the University of Bergen, while finishing his PhD on Egyptian funerary rituals.

Alexandros Tsakos studied history and archaeology at the University of Ioannina, Greece. His Master thesis was written on ancient polytheisms and submitted to the Université Libre, Belgium. He defended his PhD thesis at Humboldt University, Berlin on the topic ‘The Greek Manuscripts on Parchment Discovered at Site SR022.A in the Fourth Cataract Region, North Sudan’. He is currently a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Bergen with the project ‘Religious Literacy in Christian Nubia’. He is a founding member of the Union for Nubian Studies and member of the editorial board of Dotawo. A Journal of Nubian Studies.

Eivind Heldaas Seland is associate professor of ancient history and pre-modern global history at the University of Bergen. His research focuses on the relationship between ideology, trade, and political power in the Near East and Indian Ocean in the pre- Islamic period. He is the author of Ships of the Desert, Ships of the Sea: Palmyra in the world trade of the first three centuries CE (Harrassowitz 2016) and co-editor of Sinews of Empire: Networks in the Roman Near East and beyond (Oxbow 2017).
Egyptian Predynastic Anthropomorphic Objects A study of their function and significance in Predynastic burial customs by Ryna Ordynat. iv+120 pages; 101 illustrations presented in colour and black & white (12 colour plates). 45 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784917784. £30.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784917791. Book contents pageDownload

Anthropomorphic objects from the Egyptian Predynastic have been a topic of frequent study and debate, from the time they were first excavated until today. These objects, including human figurines, hippopotamus tusks, tag amulets and combs carved with the human image, continue to fascinate and perplex scholars today. Objects such as these form part of the extensive and distinctive iconographic imagery of Predynastic Egypt, and are often interpreted solely in the context of their symbolic or iconographic significance.

The aim of this study is to examine these anthropomorphic objects in terms of their original context in order to determine what role they played in Predynastic burials – a useful method, as most of these objects are found in graves. A database comprising all provenanced anthropomorphic Predynastic objects and their placement in the grave, in addition to the details of each grave, has been composed in order to conduct a detailed analysis. The analysis is geared to answer the question of whether it is possible to determine the function of these objects from the available data, and if so, what the results could tell us about burial practices and rituals in Predynastic Egypt.

It became clear from the results that the context, especially the specific placement of the object in the grave, can reflect significantly the meaning and function of anthropomorphic objects. The placement and function seems to have depended on the type of object: for instance, figurines had different placements and meanings to tusks and tags. Ultimately, it appears that anthropomorphic objects, especially figurines, were personal items with which the deceased were identified and buried by their relations and friends. They may have served as magical or protective items, or as representations of ancestors or the deceased individuals themselves. This conclusion is significant, as it confirms the previous assumptions about the functions of anthropomorphic objects in Predynastic graves through a thorough analysis of available data, making a contribution to our understanding of Predynastic burial rituals.
Shipwrecks and Provenance: in-situ timber sampling protocols with a focus on wrecks of the Iberian shipbuilding tradition by Sara A. Rich, Nigel Nayling, Garry Momber and Ana Crespo Solana. vi+66 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (21 colour plates). 42 2017. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784917173. £20.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784917180. Book contents pageDownload

Two of the questions most frequently asked by archaeologists of sites and the objects that populate them are ‘How old are you?’ and ‘Where are you from?’ These questions can often be answered through archaeometric dating and provenance analyses. As both archaeological sites and objects, shipwrecks pose a special problem in archaeometric dating and provenance because when they sailed, they often accumulated new construction material as timbers were repaired and replaced. Additionally, during periods of globalization, such as the so-called Age of Discovery, the provenance of construction materials may not reflect where the ship was built due to long-distance timber trade networks and the global nature of these ships’ sailing routes. Accepting these special challenges, nautical archaeologists must piece together the nuanced relationship between the ship, its timbers, and the shipwreck, and to do so, wood samples must be removed from the assemblage. Besides the provenance of the vessel’s wooden components, selective removal and analysis of timber samples can also provide researchers with unique insights relating to environmental history. For this period, wood samples could help produce information on the emergent global economy; networks of timber trade; forestry and carpentry practices; climate patterns and anomalies; forest reconstruction; repairs made to ships and when, why, and where those occurred; and much more.

This book is a set of protocols to establish the need for wood samples from shipwrecks and to guide archaeologists in the removal of samples for a suite of archaeometric techniques currently available to provenance the timbers used to construct wooden ships and boats. While these protocols will prove helpful to archaeologists working on shipwreck assemblages from any time period and in any place, this book uses Iberian ships of the 16th to 18th centuries as its case studies because their global mobility poses additional challenges to the problem at hand. At the same time, their prolificacy and ubiquity make the wreckage of these ships a uniquely global phenomenon.
Making Traditional Pottery Sustainable Today: Three Case Studies in Akita Prefecture, Japan Taken from Innovative Approaches and Explorations in Ceramic Studies edited by Sandra L. López Varela. Pages 129-143.Download

By Cara L. Reedy and Chandra L. Reedy

Handmade ceramics are an important cultural heritage of Japan, yet by the late 19th century traditional workshops were disappearing in favor of factory mass production. Many studies focus on national and international programs that support traditional potters. We investigate preservation efforts originating with craft practitioners themselves. Three case studies in Akita Prefecture represent three different approaches. Naraoka kiln was established in 1863 and has operated continuously. At Waheegama kiln, operations established in 1770 ended by 1900. In 1975, a descendant of an original potter began to rediscover traditional practices. For both kilns we examine raw materials, fabrication, firing, products, and marketing strategies, highlighting what remains original and what was changed so that the kilns could continue to thrive. The third site is a small shop (Kurashi no Utsuwa Mike) in a residential area selling affordable pottery. They sell some products from Akita kilns and many from kilns in other prefectures where they have family ties and can obtain objects inexpensively. The owner produces some pottery himself, and holds workshops in the store for local residents. These three sites demonstrate connections to past materials and processes that transform pottery into meaningful objects for both makers and users of pottery in Akita today.
Notes on the Representation of the Face of Cyrus the Great Taken from Bridging Times and Spaces: Papers in Ancient Near Eastern, Mediterranean and Armenian Studies edited by Pavel S. Avetisyan and Yervand H. Grekyan. Pages 339-347.Download

By David Stronach

Abstract: Exactly how Cyrus the Great (559-530 BC) would have wished to represent his face in any formal context towards the end of his nearly thirty-year reign still remains a not fully resolved issue. Since Darius I (522-486 BC), the near successor of Cyrus, is known to have represented himself with a long beard, and since Darius also went to some lengths to try to portray his succession to the Persian throne as a more or less seamless process, there would seem to be a distinct possibility that Darius’ Assyrian-related, full length beard was actually inspired by a similar form of beard that had previously been introduced by Cyrus. On the other hand, Cyrus appears to have had a particular interest, especially near the time of his conquest of Babylon in 539 BC, in presenting himself as the king of the storied highland Iranian city of Anshan in order to stress -- in terms that would have been readily familiar to a Mesopotamian audience – his ‘right to rule’ over the time-honored cities of Mesopotamia. In this context, Cyrus may well have insisted on adhering to a short ‘Anshanite beard’ (presumably not unlike the short royal beard that had long been favored by the neighboring kings of Elam) – and it could have been left to his eventual successor, Darius I, to introduce the elegant, long-bearded ‘Achaemenid royal visage’ that then prevailed down to the last days of Achaemenid Persian rule in 330 BC.

Keywords: Cyrus, Pasargadae, Babylon, Assurbanipal, Darius, Bisitun.