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TephroArchaeology in the North Pacific edited by Gina L. Barnes and Soda Tsutomu. Paperback; 203x276mm; xviii+330 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (92 plates in colour). (Print RRP £60.00). 83 2019. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789691726. £60.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789691733. Book contents pageDownload

‘TephroArchaeology’ is a translation of the Japanese word kazanbai kōkogaku (lit. volcanic ash archaeology), referring to a sub-discipline of archaeology that has developed in Japan in the last few decades. The first book compilation using the term, edited by the doyen of tephroarchaeology, geologist ARAI Fusao, appeared in 1993; chapters were written by 5 geologists, 3 archaeologists, 3 geographers, an engineer, and a historian. From its beginning, this subdiscipline has been interdisciplinary in approach and applied to all time periods throughout the Japanese Islands.

Honouring this tradition, a panel on TephroArchaeology was organized by Barnes & Soda at the World Archaeology Congress 8 meetings in Kyoto (August–September 2016). The scope of concern was broadened to include other parts of the world and further disciplines. Several of the papers presented at WAC8 are included here together with other invited papers that complete the North Pacific focus. Most of the chapters are case-studies written by their excavators in Japan, Canada, and the United States, but a historian and a behavioural psychologist contribute important perspectives and add world-wide content. The volume is rounded out by an extensive Preface, Introduction and Appendices by co-editor Barnes, and a historic contextualization of TephroArchaeology by co-editor Soda. A final appendix consists of a translation of the techniques of tephra identification by MACHIDA Hiroshi and ARAI Fusao, to whom the volume is dedicated.

The strengths of this book are many. It was primarily designed to bring into the English-speaking world the work being done by local archaeologists in Japan whose results are usually only accessible in Japanese. In addition to the meticulous excavation methodologies, innovative analytical techniques and interpretive analyses represented herein by all the authors are the variety of problems in human history that can be addressed through tephroarchaeological investigation. This subdiscipline may spawn a more general Volcanic Archaeology or Archaeological Volcanology as adherents grow and as volcanologists themselves take heed of the archaeological record to inform on eruption processes and products.

About the Editors
Gina L. BARNES: Professor Emeritus, Durham University, Barnes earned her PhD in Anthropology at the University of Michigan, followed by a career teaching East Asian Archaeology at Cambridge and Durham Universities. In addition to her cultural studies (State Formation in Korea, State Formation in Japan, Routledge 2001, 2007), she has always been involved in landscape archaeology and geoarchaeology. After taking a late BSc in Geology with the Open University, she formulated the subdiscipline of Tectonic Archaeology with her publications on Japanese Island geology, earthquake archaeology, tsunami archaeology, and now tephroarchaeology. She is a Professorial Research Associate at SOAS University of London, and an Affiliate of the Earth Sciences Department at Durham University. Her major publication, Archaeology of East Asia (Oxbow, 2015) is widely used as a textbook, and the Society for East Asian Archaeology (SEAA), which she founded in 1996, is the major professional venue for archaeologists of China, Korea and Japan.

SODA Tsutomu: As a Doctor of Science (Geography) from Tokyo Metropolitan University, Soda studied tephra identification within Quaternary research in Japan under the doyens of tephrochronology, MACHIDA Hiroshi and ARAI Fusao. His research extends throughout Japan but focusses on Gunma Prefecture, having established Gunma’s natural history in the Quaternary and cooperating with archaeologists to research the history of natural hazards in this active volcanic area. He is a major tephrochronologist for archaeology in Japan, formerly with the Palaeoenvironment Research Institute Co, Ltd., but now running his own Institute of Tephrochronology for Natu
Han Dynasty (206BC–AD220) Stone Carved Tombs in Central and Eastern China by Chen Li. Paperback; 203x276mm; xiv+216 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (146 colour plates). (Print RRP £58.00). 71 2018. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789690774. £58.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781789690781. Book contents pageDownload

Han Dynasty (206 BC–AD 220) stone carved tombs were constructed from carved stone slabs or a combination of moulded bricks and carved stones, and were distributed in Central and Eastern China. Such multi-chambered stone tombs were very popular among the Han people, but they were entirely new, and were a result of outside stimuli rather than an independent development within China. The stone carved tombs were a result of imitating royal rock-cut tombs, while the rock-cut tombs were stimulated by foreign examples. Moreover, many details of stone carved tombs also had Western features. These exotic elements reflected the desire to assimilate exotica within Chinese traditions. Some details within stone carved tombs showed high level of stone working technologies with Western influences. But in general the level of stone construction of the Han period was relatively low. The methods of construction showed how unfamiliar the Western system was to the Han artisans. Han Dynasty stone carved tombs were hybrids of different techniques, including timber, brick and stone works. From these variations, Han people could choose certain types of tombs to satisfy their specific ritual and economic needs. Not only structures, but also pictorial decorations of stone carved tombs were innovations. The range of image motifs was quite limited. Similar motifs can be found in almost every tomb. Such similarities were partly due to the artisans, who worked in workshops and used repertoires for the carving of images. But these also suggest that the tombs were decorated for certain purposes with a given functional template. Together with different patterns of burial objects and their settings, such images formed a way through which the Han people gave meaning to the afterworld. As the Han Empire collapsed, stone carved tombs ceased being constructed in the Central Plains. However, they set a model for later tombs. The idea of building horizontal stone chamber tombs spread to Han borderlands, and gradually went further east to the Korean Peninsula. In this book, the origins, meanings and influences of Han Dynasty stone carved tombs are presented as a part of the history of interactions between different parts of Eurasia.

About the Author
Chen Li, DPhil (Oxon.), is an assistant professor at the School of Humanities, Tongji University (Shanghai, China). His main research interests include art and archaeology of early China, structures and contents of Chinese tombs, as well as interactions between Central China and Inner Asia. He has published English and Chinese articles in different peer-reviewed journals or edited volumes. His article Rethinking the origins of Han Dynasty stone carved tombs won the 2014 Young Scholar Award, European Association for Chinese Studies. Currently he leads a research project Constructing Stone Tombs in Early Imperial China funded by the National Social Science Foundation of China.
The Hunting Farmers: Understanding ancient human subsistence in the central part of the Korean peninsula during the Late Holocene by Seungki Kwak. xii+118 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (45 colour plates). 37 2017. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781784916756. £32.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784916763. Book contents pageDownload

The transition from foragers to farmers and the role of intensive rice agriculture have been among the most controversial subjects in Korean archaeology. However, the relatively high acidity of sediment in the Korean peninsula has made it impossible to examine faunal/floral remains directly for tracing the subsistence change. For this reason, many of the studies on the transition heavily relied on the shell middens in coastal areas, which reflect only a small portion of the overall subsistence in the Korean Peninsula. The subsistence behaviors recorded in numerous large-scale inland habitation sites have been obscured by the overall separation between hunter-gatherer and intensive rice farmer. This research investigates the role of intensive rice farming as a subsistence strategy in the central part of the prehistoric Korean peninsula using organic geochemical analysis and luminescence dating on potsherds. The central hypothesis of this research is that there was a wide range of resource utilization along with rice farming around 3,400-2,600 BP. This hypothesis contrasts with prevailing rice-based models, where climatically driven intensive rice agriculture from 3,400 BP is thought to be the dominant subsistence strategy that drove social complexity. This research focuses on four large-scale inland habitation sites that contain abundant pottery collections to evaluate the central hypothesis as well the prevailing rice-centred model. This research produced critical data for addressing prehistoric subsistence in the Korean peninsula and established a detailed chronology of subsistence during 3,400-1,800 BP.

Access Archaeology: This imprint is designed to make archaeological research accessible to all and to present a low-cost (or no-cost) publishing solution for academics from all over the world. Material ranges from theses, conference proceedings, catalogues of archaeological material, excavation reports and beyond. We provide type-setting guidance and templates for authors to prepare material themselves designed to be made available for free online via our Open Access platform and to supply in-print to libraries and academics worldwide at a reasonable price point. Click here to learn more about publishing in Access Archaeology.
China Chapter 25 from World Archaeology at the Pitt Rivers Museum by Lukas Nickel. Download

The Pitt Rivers Museum (PRM) holds c. 6,873 objects from China, of which c.253 are currently defined as ‘archaeological’. As with other parts of the world, the ‘ethnographic’ material includes much of value for historical and material cultural studies, but this is not considered in this chapter. The Museum also holds an unquantified amount of Chinese export ceramics, collected from elsewhere in the world, which are not formally considered here, but are briefly discussed below. The types of ‘archaeological’ objects range from Neolithic ceramics to religious and curio items of the 19th century. There is material from the estate of the Silk Road explorer Sir Aurel Stein, a range of coins, medals and talismans, and a significant collection of ceramics. This chapter reviews the history of the collection (25.2), and then considers four significant elements of the collection – the Stein collection (25.3.1), the numismatic collections (25.3.2), a rubbing of the Nestorian stele (25.3.3), and the Chinese export ceramics (25.3.4) – before drawing brief conclusions about the research potential of the collections (25.4). Click on the PDF to read the full paper online, or download to your device. The full volume is available in paperback here.
India and Sri Lanka Chapter 23 from World Archaeology at the Pitt Rivers Museum by Dan Hicks, Michael D. Petraglia and Nicole Boivin. 482-503.Download

This chapter presents an overview of the collections from India (23.2) and Sri Lanka (23.3), and reflects on their significance in a concluding section (23.4). The PRM holds c. 7,029 ‘archaeological’ objects from India and Sri Lanka (Figure 23.1): c. 5,449 from India, and c. 1,580 from Sri Lanka. A few collecting activities undertaken before 1857 are represented by these collections but, while there were transfers, exchanges and purchases between museums, virtually no collecting was carried out after the Second World War and Independence from Britain. Almost all are prehistoric stone tools, although a range of other material is also present. These collections are virtually unstudied, although many were published around the time of their discovery or donation,1 and are often unquantified, but they include some unique assemblages for the history of archaeology in the region. Click on the PDF to read the full paper online, or download to your device. The full volume is available in paperback here.
Japan Chapter 24 from World Archaeology at the Pitt Rivers Museum by Alice Stevenson, Simon Kaner and Fumiko Ohinata. 504-510.Download

In 1883 Edward Tylor received a letter from one of the foremost British Japanologists of the 19th century, Basil Hall Chamberlain, introducing himself and ‘the interest which I [Chamberlain] feel in Japanese subjects’.1 The timing was fortuitous. It coincided with Pitt-Rivers’ negotiations with the University of Oxford on the donation of his collection. Only 15 years previously the 250-year isolationist policies imposed by the Japanese government on the country had been lifted and western scholars, like Basil Hall Chamberlain, were for the first time welcomed by the Meiji government to introduce western science and technology. Such ‘employed foreigners’ or oyatoi-gaikokujin (Umesawa 1968) facilitated not only Japanese/western intellectual exchanges, but also material exchanges that benefited collections on both sides of the world, including that of the Pitt Rivers Museum (PRM). In this manner the 13 stone pieces that made up Japanese archaeological portion of the PRM founding collection expanded to c. 510 archaeological artefacts over the course of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, from a range of sites (Figure 24.1). A full catalogue of this unpublished archaeological collection is in preparation, and provides a detailed account of the PRM’s Japanese archaeological holdings (Ohinata et al. forthcoming). This chapter provides an overview of the collections.
Of the ‘three archaeologies’ of Japanese later prehistory (Mizoguchi 2006), material from the hunter-gatherer societies of the Jomon is best represented in the PRM collections, primarily in the form of stone tools, followed by pottery from the complex agrarian society of the Kofun (Table 24.1). Only one artefact is attributable to the Yayoi period. The Hokkaido sequence is also well represented, principally again from the long Jomon period. Five medieval artefacts represent the historical periods, although the PRM undoubtedly houses many more. Overall, whilst miscellaneous in character, with many objects of unknown provenance, the collection provides a tangible snapshot of the material available to western and Japanese scholars at the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries. As such, the collection’s primary significance lies in its historical associations, a subject that is of considerable scholarly interest today. Click on the PDF to read the full paper online, or download to your device. The full volume is available in paperback here.
Myanmar and Malaysia Chapter 26 from World Archaeology at the Pitt Rivers Museum by Huw Barton. 517-524.Download

A recent overview of museum collections in the UK (Glover 2002) noted that only a handful of institutions in Great Britain, around 14 in total, hold archaeological material from south-east Asia. In this context the Pitt Rivers Museum (PRM) was acknowledged to be amongst only three institutions that held ‘significant archaeological materials’ (Glover 2002: 417): along with the Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology and the British Museum. The PRM holds c. 355 ‘archaeological’ artefacts from Malaysia and c. 248 ‘archaeological’ objects from Myanmar (Burma) (Table 26.1). Most of these are Holocene stone tools. As with the collections from the Indian subcontinent (Chapter 23 above), the collections from Myanmar and Malaysia were formed between the 1880s and the 1940s. The majority of the collection consists of polished stone tools including axes, adzes (of three main forms), including sharpening stones, touchstones, charm stones, sumatraliths, and two nut crackers. The bias in the collection towards polished stone artefacts is typical of the attention paid by amateurs and professionals during the 19th and early 20th centuries towards formal tools. As a result such collections are generally haphazard, rarely contain detailed information on the context of discovery and usually represent the finest examples rather than the range of implements originally produced. That being said, this collection represents a significant assemblage of polished stone tools containing the main range of forms typical of both regions as summarized by Tweedie (1953) and Noone (1941). Click on the PDF to read the full paper online, or download to your device. The full volume is available in paperback here.
Asia and the Middle East Chapter 21 from World Archaeology at the Pitt Rivers Museum by Dan Hicks. 455-470.Download

The Pitt Rivers Museum (PRM) holds c. 14,624 objects from Asia that are currently defined as ‘archaeological’ (Table 1.6). The largest collections within this Asian material are represented by the c. 5,449 artefacts from India, the c. 3,524 artefacts from Israel, the c. 1,602 artefacts from Sri Lanka, the c. 1,099 artefacts from Jordan, the c. 510 artefacts from Japan, and the c. 363 artefacts from the Occupied Palestinian Territories. These collections are explored over the next five chapters (Chapters 22–26), and are introduced in this chapter. Click on the PDF to read the full paper online, or download to your device. The full volume is available in paperback here.
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