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NEW: Alexandria and Qumran: Back to the Beginning by Kenneth Silver. xxvi+586 pages; 42 figures, 11 maps and plans (24 plates in colour). 381 2017. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784917289. £45.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784917296. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

This year, 2017, marks 70 years since the discovery of the famous Dead Sea Scrolls at Khirbet Qumran by the Dead Sea in 1947. The Dead Sea Scrolls are one of the most well-known archaeological discoveries of the 20th century. This book addresses the proto-history and the roots of the Qumran community and of the Dead Sea Scrolls in the light of contemporary scholarship in Alexandria, Egypt. Alexandria, as the centre for Hellenistic Jews and the location of the Library of Alexandria, forms a key to understanding the theme of the book. The relationship of this context to the thoughts of the Essenes, the Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria, the Jewish Therapeutae of Egypt living in the neighbourhood of Alexandria and the Pythagoreans are especially studied in this work. Historical sources (both Jewish and Classical authors) and archaeological evidence are taken into account in the wider Graeco-Roman context. The connection between the Jewish Therapeutae in the Lake Mareotis region and the Palestinian Essenes is explained by the ‘Jewish Pythagoras’ based on the idea that the movements share the same philosophical tradition based on Judaism and Pythagoreanism. The prototypes of the Dead Sea Scrolls are explained in their Egyptian context, in association with the Library of Alexandria, the Egyptian temple manuals, and the formation of libraries in the Hellenistic period including that of Qumran.

About the Author:
Dr Kenneth Silver is a historian and professional archaeologist, who has lived and worked for decades in the Near East. He is a specialist in Hellenistic and Roman archaeology, history and numismatics. He has worked with archaeological material in Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Syria and Turkey. He has previously published a number of scientific articles and monographs in this field. His current research interests include the study of early Jewish-Christian relations and the history of early Christianity. Presently he is the director of a survey and mapping project in Northern Mesopotamia studying the border zone between the late Roman/ Byzantine Empire and Persia.
NEW: Ceramic manufacturing techniques and cultural traditions in Nubia from the 8th to the 3rd millennium BC Examples from Sai Island by Giulia D’Ercole. xviii+186 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (33 colour plates). Available both in print and Open Access. 41 2017 Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology 96. ISBN 9781784916718. £30.00 (No VAT). Book contents pageBuy Now

In Sudan the first ceramic containers appeared at the beginning of the 9th millennium BC, with the earliest dates c. 8700 BC from Sorourab 2, in Central Sudan, and c. 8600 BC from the district of Amara West, in Northern Sudan.

This book presents a comprehensive critical analysis of diverse ceramic assemblages from Sai Island, in the Middle Nile Valley of Northern Sudan, on the border between ancient Upper and Lower Nubia. The assemblages included in this study cover about five millennia, spanning the period c. 8000 to c. 2500 BC. They go from the initial appearance of ceramic technology within hunting-fishing-gathering communities living in permanent or semi-permanent settlements (locally named ‘Khartoum Variant’ or ‘Mesolithic’ horizon: c. 7600–4800 BC), through the ceramic productions of the first ‘Neolithic’ pastoral societies (Abkan horizon: c. 5550−3700 BC), to those of the Pre-Kerma Nubian culture (c. 3600−2500 BC).

A thorough stylistic macroscopic observation of the finds is integrated with a solid technological approach by means of archaeometric petrographic (OM), mineralogical (XRPD) and chemical (XRF) analyses. Data are discussed and compared across a broad geographical area, including Lower and Upper Nubia, Central Sudan and the Egyptian Western Desert. They provide an original synthesis and interpretation of the ceramic traditions in Nubia and Sudan and propose a critical review of the debate on the invention of pottery and the functional and cultural reasons for the emergence of the ceramic technology.

This book is also available to download in PDF format in our Open Access section.
Proceedings of the XI International Congress of Egyptologists, Florence, Italy 23-30 August 2015 edited by Gloria Rosati and Maria Cristina Guidotti. xiv+738 pages; illustrated throughout in black & white with 100 plates in colour. Papers in English and Italian. 335 2017 Archaeopress Egyptology 19. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784916008. £90.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784916015. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

The Egyptian Museum of Florence, in collaboration with the University of Florence, hosted the Eleventh International Congress of Egyptologists which took place from 23rd to 30th August 2015, under the patronage of the IAE – International Association of Egyptologists.

This volume publishes 136 papers and posters presented during the Congress. Topics discussed here range from archaeology, religion, philology, mummy investigations and archaeometry to history, offering an up-to-date account of research in these fields.

About the Author:
Gloria Rosati is Associate Professor of Egyptology at the University of Florence, Department of History, Geography, Archaeology, Fine and Performing Arts. Her research topics are Middle Kingdom history and art, as well as funerary texts and rituals. Gloria has been working in Egypt, at El-Sheikh Abadah / Antinoupolis, in both Roman town and at necropoleis, in the temple of Ramesses II, and in the Theban necropolis, Asasif.

Maria Cristina Guidotti is the Director of the Florence Egyptian Museum, and is a specialist in Egyptian pottery from the Pharaonic and Graeco-Roman periods. In her publications she studied material from the Florence collections, from excavations at Saqqara, from the funerary temple of Thutmosis IV-western Thebes, and from the Roman town of Antinoupolis.


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Road Archaeology in the Middle Nile Volume 2: Excavations from Meroe to Atbara 1994 by Michael Mallinson and Laurence Smith. xii+182 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. English text with five-page Arabic summary. 348 2017. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784916466. £34.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784916473. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

The first season of survey work in 1993 was undertaken in advance of the construction of the North Challenge Road initially between Geili and Atbara. This work was carried out in the SARS concession area from BM98, opposite the Pyramids of Meroe, to Atbara. A total of 170 sites were recorded and this was published in the first volume of Road Archaeology in the Middle Nile (Mallinson et al. 96). In addition, a report was prepared advising the Sudan National Committee for Roads and Bridges of areas which were likely to be damaged by the road construction. The following year it was indicated that due to the advanced development of the road design no rerouting would be possible.

In response to this a rescue season was proposed to excavate the sites clearly at risk in the remaining few months before construction and grading began. A limited amount of funds was provided by the Haycock Fund and within this resource a project was assembled with SARS directed by Laurence Smith and Michael Mallinson. As a total of eight sites with 30 archaeological structures appeared directly on the road line a methodology was needed that would permit these to be properly excavated and recorded in the available time of three weeks that the funds would accommodate.
Lost and Now Found: Explorers, Diplomats and Artists in Egypt and the Near East edited by Neil Cooke and Vanessa Daubney. xx+295 pages; illustrated throughout with 42 plates in colour. 344 2017. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784916275. £32.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784916282. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

Long distance travel and mass tourism are not recent phenomena. This collection of papers from the 2015 ASTENE Conference in Exeter demonstrates that over the centuries many individuals and groups of people have left the safety of their family home and travelled huge distances both for adventure and to learn more about other peoples and places. Some travels were to help establish trade routes, while others were for personal pleasure and knowledge. Many of those who travelled have left little or no record but in a few cases their travels can be determined from the brief encounters they had with other travellers who noted these chance meetings in their journals and diaries, which they later used to inform and write for publication accounts of their own travels and impressions.

The 18 papers in this rich and varied collection include: finding the lost diary of a member of the Prussian scientific expedition to Egypt of 1842-45 that was hiding in ‘plain sight’ among other books; the illustrated journal of a Croatian travelling through Egypt, Nubia and Sudan in 1853-4 and the hardships endured; the competition between Officers of the East India Company to find the fastest trade routes through Syria between India and the Red Sea; and identifying the Dutch artist who made paintings of Constantinople and later travelled to India before joining the Bombay Artillery as a Lieutenant-fireworker. All 18 papers are the product of hours of careful research by their authors among original manuscripts and books tracked down in archives, libraries and private collections around the world.
Egypt 2015: Perspectives of Research Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference of Egyptologists (2nd-7th June, 2015, Zagreb – Croatia) by Mladen Tomorad and Joanna Popielska-Grzybowska. xii+358 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. 329 2017 Archaeopress Egyptology 18. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784915841. £50.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784915858. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

The Seventh Central European Conference of Egyptologists. Egypt 2015: Perspectives of Research (CECE7) was held at the University of Zagreb in Croatia in 2015. It was co-organised by two scholarly institutions: the Department of History at the Centre for Croatian Studies of the University of Zagreb, Croatia (Dr Mladen Tomorad), and the Department of Ancient Cultures of the Pułtusk Academy of Humanities in Pułtusk, Poland (Dr Joanna Popielska-Grzybowska).

This book presents a selection of papers which were read at the conference. The volume is divided into six sections in which thirty-two scholars from fourteen European countries cover various fields of modern Egyptological research. The first group of five papers is devoted to language, literature and religious texts; in the second section three authors describe various themes related to art, iconography and architectural studies; the third group contains four contributions on current funerary and burial studies; in the fourth (largest) section, ten authors present their recent research on material culture and museum studies; the fifth is concerned with the history of Ancient Egypt; and in the last (sixth), two authors examine modern Egyptomania and the 19th century travellers to Egypt.
Eastern Sudan in its Setting The archaeology of a region far from the Nile Valley by Andrea Manzo. viii+82 pages; illustrated throughout with 38 colour plates. Available both in print and Open Access. Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology 94. ISBN 9781784915582. £25.00 (No VAT). Book contents pageBuy Now

Eastern Sudan, like other regions far away from the Nile valley, has often been overlooked historically on account of a kind of prejudice towards areas lacking in monumental or urban remains or evidence of any literary production. Despite the relevance of the deserts and marginal areas becoming increasingly evident in the last year or so, in Sudan only a few research projects have been conducted in these regions. The ongoing research project in Eastern Sudan by the University ‘L’Orientale’ has provided a preliminary reconstruction of the history of the region from c. 6000 BC to AD 1500. This publication outlines this reconstruction and also considers the more general setting known for the other regions of northeastern Africa. Several issues remain to be clarified and understanding of some phases is still limited, nevertheless it can be safely stated that Eastern Sudan, was in ancient times, as it is now, a crossroads between the Nile basin, Eastern Desert, the Ethio-Eritrean highlands and the Red Sea, represented a crucial region in several respects: the spread of domestic crops and animals towards the Ethio-Eritrean highlands, the spread of the Sahelian crops towards India via the Red Sea and Arabia, as well as the long-distance trade network characterizing northeastern Africa in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC.

This book is also available to download in PDF format in our Open Access section.
Liber Amicorum–Speculum Siderum: Nūt Astrophoros Papers Presented to Alicia Maravelia edited by Nadine Guilhou with the help of Antigoni Maniati. xxvi+374 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. Papers in English and French. 302 2016 Archaeopress Egyptology 17. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784915223. £56.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784915230. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

In this volume, a pleiade of Egyptologists, Archaeologists, Archaeoastronomers, Archaeoanthropologists, Historians and other scholars from fifteen countries (Hellas, Egypt, France, Russia, Ukraine, Sweden, Switzerland, Belgium, Italy, Germany, Poland, Hungary, Croatia, Turkey, Australia) have combined their efforts in order to honour Alicia Maravelia, whose important work in Egyptology and in the foundation of the Hellenic Institute of Egyptology are highly acknowledged.

This book, with foreword by His Eminence the Archbishop of Sinai and Abbot of the Holy Monastery of St Catherine, Mgr Damianos, contains thirty original articles, two abstracts and a plethora of accompanying texts including Dr Maravelia’s list of publications. The book is divided into three parts: 1. Nūt and the Realm of Stars [15 contributions]; 2. Ancient Egyptian Religion and its Celestial Undertones [12 contributions]; and 3. Ancient Egyptian Science, Medicine, Archaeoanthropology, Egyptomania, Egyptophilia, etc. [5 contributions].

The reader will find papers that deal mainly with the goddess Nūt and her mythology and cosmographic notions related to her, the stars and other celestial luminaries, orientations of monuments, ancient Egyptian constellations and decans, the notion of time, calendars, religious and funerary observances related to the sky, ancient Egyptian religion, religious and amuletic artefacts, religious mythology, as well as archaeoanthropological and medicinal studies, papers on ancient Egyptian Mathematics, Egyptophilia, Egyptomania and ancient Egyptian collections.
Studies on the Vignettes from Chapter 17 of the Book of the Dead I: The Image of mś.w Bdšt in Ancient Egyptian Mythology by Mykola Tarasenko. viii+151 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. 281 2016 Archaeopress Egyptology 16. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784914509. £30.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784914516. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

Among the numerous deities in the ancient Egyptian mythology, whose nature and function are still vague and obscure, are mś.w Bdšt – ‘Children of Weakness’. These beings are twice mentioned in the Book of the Dead chapter 17. The text fragments contain two local versions of the myth with mś.w Bdšt – Hermopolitan (Urk. V: Abs. 1), and Heliopolitan (Urk. V: Abs. 22). Since the last text describes the combat between Re and the ‘Children of Weakness’, the same is likely to be reflected on the vignette, which depicts the battle of Re against mmś.w Bdšt, metaphorically shown in the form of a serpent. This book is a comprehensive study of the ‘Children of Weakness’ myth and the scene depicting the cat, cutting off the head of the serpent under the branches of the išd-tree found on the number of Book of the Dead chapter 17 vignettes.

About the Author:
Dr Mykola Tarasenko is a Senior Fellow at the А. Yu. Krymskyi Institute of Oriental Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyev. His research area is focused on the studies of illustrative tradition of the Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead, and specifically the vignettes of spell 17. In 2007 he was awarded the fellowship grant of the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD) for the study course at the ‘Bonn Book of the Dead Project’ (Bonn Totenbuchprojekt). In 2014 he won the fellowship grant of the Stiftungsfonds für Postgraduates der Ägyptologie (Vienna, Austria). The current book is the result of his work within these Fellowships Projects.
Chronological Developments in the Old Kingdom Tombs in the Necropoleis of Giza, Saqqara And Abusir Toward an Economic Decline during the Early Dynastic Period and the Old Kingdom by Leo Roeten. xiv+144 pages; illustrated throughout in black & white. 280 2016 Archaeopress Egyptology 15. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784914608. £30.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784914615. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

At the end of the 6th dynasty the 500 year old established order of the Old Kingdom fell apart, which, according to the interpretation given to various contemporary literary sources, started a period of social unrest and economic decline.

The magnitude of the economic investment bestowed by the members of the higher social strata on the monuments that would be the abode for their after-life leads to the hypothesis that an economic decline could also manifest itself in the dimensions of the various architectonic elements of these monuments.

The dimensions of the tombs have been chosen as the subject of this study. The preliminary part of the study is performed on the tombs in the necropolis of Giza. The results of the study are compared with the same measurements in the necropoleis of Saqqara and Abusir. The conclusion is that the economic decline started already at the early dynastic period and not as a result of the caving in of the Old Kingdom.

An interesting ‘side-effect’ of the study is that the dimensions of the tombs can serve as a method to check a dating that has been proposed based on other aspect of the tomb.
Old Kingdom Copper Tools and Model Tools by Martin Odler. xvi+292 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. 275 2016 Archaeopress Egyptology 14. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784914424. £45.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784914431. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

The Old Kingdom of Egypt (Dynasties 4–6, c. 2600–2180 BC) is famous as a period of the builders of the largest Egyptian pyramids. It is generally accepted that the evidence on the use of copper alloy tools from this era is meagre. Martin Odler gathers the textual, iconographic and palaeographic evidence and examines Old Kingdom artefacts in order to revise this view on the use of copper alloy tools and model tools. Furthermore, he provides updated definitions of tool classes and tool kits, together with the context of their use. Besides rare specimens of full-size tools, the largest corpora of the material have been preserved in the form of model tools in the burial equipment of the Old Kingdom elite and were most probably symbols of their power to commission and fund craftwork. Moreover, the size and elaboration of the model tools were probably connected to the social status of the buried persons. The long-standing division in the Egyptological literature between full-size tools and model tools is questioned. The ancient sources also enable to show that the preservation of material culture from the Old Kingdom was largely dependent on a conscious selection made within the past culture, with completely different settlement and funerary contexts and a conspicuous absence of weapons. The volume is completed by co-authored case studies on archaeometallurgy of selected Old Kingdom artefacts in the collection of the Egyptian Museum of Leipzig University, on morphometry of Old Kingdom adze blades and on the finds of stone and ceramic vessels associated with the findings of so-called Old Kingdom model tools.

Martin Odler provides an accessible introduction and overview of his research in his article for the Archaeopress Blog. Click here to read the blog post.

Reviews:

“In short: the authors have succeeded in presenting a reference and standard work, in which no one who is concerned with this period and this material should pass by; a work that will always be consulted with pleasure and joy.”Robert Kuhn, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (KunstbuchAnzeiger.de) (Translated from the German)
Houses in Graeco-Roman Egypt Arenas for Ritual Activity by Youssri Ezzat Hussein Abdelwahed. viii+104; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. 271 2016. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784914370. £25.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784914387. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

This book examines different forms of ritual activities performed in houses of Graeco- Roman Egypt. It draws on the rich archaeological record of rural housing and evidence from literature or papyrological references to both urban and rural housing. The introduction critically considers the literature relevant to the topic in order to identify the research gap. Chapter I attempts to reconstruct the structure of urban and rural houses in Graeco- Roman Egypt in the light of papyri and archaeology. This aims to establish the physical and spatial framework for the rituals considered in the following chapters. In line with this reconstruction of domestic properties is the reconstruction of the architectural layout and use of the domestic pylon in Chapter II. Chapter III deals with two rituals enacted before the front door of the house, namely the sacrifice of fish on the 9th of Thoth and the sacrifice of pigs on the 15th of Pachon. Chapter IV considers the ritual of the illumination of lamps for the goddess Athena-Neith within and around houses on the 13th of Epeiph. Chapter V highlights the use of the house as an arena for social types of rituals associated with dining, birthdays, the mallokouria, the epikrisis, and marriage. Chapter VI explores the religious sphere of houses, which is obvious from domestic shrines, wall paintings with religious themes, and figurines of Egyptian and Graeco-Roman deities uncovered from houses. The last chapter deals with mourning rituals, which the house occupants performed after the demise of their beloved animals, such as dogs, and their family members. In the conclusion, I summarize my work and draw out its implications, suggesting that the house was the locus of social, religious, and funerary rituals in Graeco-Roman Egypt.
Tomb Security in Ancient Egypt from the Predynastic to the Pyramid Age by Reg Clark. 566 pages; illustrated throughout in black & white. 227 2016 Archaeopress Egyptology 13. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784912994. £70.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784913007. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

Egyptians went to great lengths to protect their dead from the omnipresent threat of robbery by incorporating specially developed architectural features in their tombs. However, the architecture of tomb security has rarely been studied as a subject in its own right and is usually treated as a secondary topic in publications of a scholarly nature, which tend to regard its role as incidental to the design of the tomb rather than perhaps being the driving force behind it. This issue had been raised in the early Twentieth Century by Reisner (1908: 11), who suggested that the rapid evolution of Egyptian tomb substructures was as a result of the desire for tomb security and more ostentatious tombs, rather than a development spurred by religious or funerary practices. Taking this premise much further, this book presents an in-depth analysis of the architecture of tomb security in Egypt from the Predynastic Period (c. 5000–4000 BC) until the early Fourth Dynasty (c. 2500 BC) by extrapolating data on the security features of published tombs from the whole of Egypt and gathering it together for the first time in one accessible database. Using the information assembled it adds new information to the current body of knowledge concerning the architecture of tomb security and explains many of the underlying reasons behind their adoption. By thematically analysing these features in order to draw conclusions it also demonstrates that many aspects of the architecture of the Egyptian tomb over this period, in both royal and private contexts–whilst subject to changing tastes, needs and ideologies–had indeed originated as the result of the need to protect the tomb or improve its security.

About the author:
Following a two year foundation course, Reg Clark trained in graphic design at the West Surrey College of Art & Design during the mid 1970s and since then has been involved variously in graphic design, public relations, furniture design, manufacture, sales and product training. Always interested in Egyptology, he studied for a Certificate in Archaeology at Bristol University in the late 1990s and then in 2005 went on to read Egyptian Archaeology at Swansea University, where he was awarded a First Class Honours Degree in 2008. He subsequently undertook a research degree at the same university and was finally awarded a PhD in Egyptology in 2014 for his thesis Tomb Security in Ancient Egypt from the Predynastic to the Pyramid Age, published by Archaeopress of Oxford in 2016.

Reviews
'All considered, Tomb Security is as nearly perfect a publication as one could hope to find. The scholarship is impeccable, the writing lucid and concise, the organization clear and easy to access, both on first reading and for reference later. The physical product, too, is beyond reproach. The binding is solid, the illustrations bright with good contrast, the print (even the small-font footnotes) easy to see… This is a volume sure to be a standard for years to come.' (Kmt A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt)

'Packed with plans, diagrams, black-and- white photographs, an extensive bibliography, reference charts and a comprehensive illustrated tomb catalogue, this is a go-to text for anyone studying the development of the Egyptian tomb.' - Sarah Griffiths (Ancient Egypt Magazine, Issue 96, 2016)
Read the full review online here: http://www.ancientegyptmagazine.co.uk/reviews96.htm
The Wisdom of Thoth Magical Texts in Ancient Mediterranean Civilisations edited by Grażyna Bąkowska-Czerner, Alessandro Roccati and Agata Świerzowska. ii+130 pages; illustrated throughout in black & white with 15 colour plates. 204 2016. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784912475. £32.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784912482. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

This volume represents a selection of contributions on Mediterranean themes from a wider international interdisciplinary conference on Magical Texts in Ancient Civilizations, organised by the Centre for Comparative Studies of Civilizations at Jagiellonian University in Kraków in Poland between 27-28 June 2013. The meeting welcomed researchers from Hungary, Italy, Poland and Ukraine, covering various disciplines including comparative civilizations, comparative religions, linguistics, archaeology, anthropology, history and philosophy.

In the past ‘magic’ was often misunderstood as irrational behaviour, in contrast to the tradition of philosophical or rational thought mostly based on Greek models. Evidence collected from ancient high cultures, like that of Pharaonic Egypt, includes massive amounts of documents and treatises of all kinds related to what has been labelled ‘magic’. Today it cannot be written off as merely a primitive or ‘lesser human’ phenomenon: the awareness of magic remains to the present day in many societies, at all social levels, and has not been generally replaced by what might be considered as more advanced thinking. The researches in this volume focus heavily on Egypt (in particular Predynastic, Pharaonic, Hellenistic, Roman and Christian evidence), but Near Eastern material was also presented from Pagan (Ugaritic) and Christian (Syriac) times.
The Production, Use and Importance of Flint Tools in the Archaic Period and the Old Kingdom in Egypt by Michał Kobusiewicz. vi+168 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. 203 2016 Archaeopress Egyptology 12. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784912499. £36.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784912505. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

This book seeks to explore the issues of production, use and importance of flint tools in the Archaic Period, known also as the Early Dynastic Period, and the Old Kingdom of Egypt, the epoch immediately following the unification of pre-state organisms of Upper and Lower Egypt into one political body. This volume provides an in-depth study of tools made of flint, which unceasingly fulfilled a major role in the period being considered. Flint, occurring in a number of varieties, substantially outnumbers other raw materials used for manufacturing tools, to wit: chalcedony, obsidian, quartzite, carnelian or rock crystal, all found in small or even minute amounts, which attests to their minor role in the first periods of Egyptian history. Notwithstanding a growing number of implements made of copper, then bronze, flint tools constituted an essential element of a broad-based culture, and not only material culture, in the Archaic Period, the Old Kingdom and beyond.
Rise of the Hyksos Egypt and the Levant from the Middle Kingdom to the Early Second Intermediate Period by Anna-Latifa Mourad. xiv+314; black & white throughout with 4 colour plates. 174 11 Archaeopress Egyptology . Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784911331. £48.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784911348. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

The Second Intermediate Period of Egypt is characterised by the destabilisation of the Egyptian state. It is also recognised as the time in which the aptly named ‘rulers of the foreign lands’, or Hyksos, extended their control over parts of Egypt. But, who are these rulers and where did they come from? How did they create their Fifteenth Dynasty within Egypt? This book provides a new appraisal of the circumstances leading to Hyksos rule. Utilising theories on ethnicity and cultural mixing, it investigates the nature and effects of Egyptian-Levantine contact from the Middle Kingdom to the early Second Intermediate Period, and reassesses the Egyptian concept of the other. The approach is holistic, gathering archaeological, textual and artistic evidence from sites across three regions: Egypt, the Eastern Desert, and the Levant. This method is proven to be wellsuited in shedding light on the origins of the enigmatic Hyksos, offering new insights into how these ‘rulers of foreign lands’ established their Fifteenth Dynasty in Egypt.

Reviews

'...a pioneer attempt to study the rich and overwhelming data on contacts between Egypt and the Levant and the Levantine presence in Egypt during the Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period entirely... The author is to be congratulated on collecting and systematically presenting almost all the sites with related material in a catalogue divided regionally as this must have been a time consuming process. Until now there is no monographs attempting to cover all the sites in Egypt with the Levantine or Levant related material culture, artistic representations and textual attestations on one side, and sites in the Levant with Egyptian material culture on the other.' - Uros Matic (Archäologische Informationen 39, 2016)

'Mourad has written a timely, informative, and excellent monograph, replete with data, detailed illustrations, and plates, a comprehensive bibliography, two appendices of additional materials, and relevant texts presented in multiple formats.' - Susan L. Cohen, Montana State University (Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology and Heritage Studies Vol 5, Nos 3-4, 2017)
Royal Statues in Egypt 300 BC-AD 220 Context and Function by Elizabeth Brophy. iv+166 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. 166 2015 Archaeopress Egyptology 10. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784911515. £38.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784911522. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

The aim of this book is to approach Ptolemaic and Imperial royal sculpture in Egypt dating between 300 BC and AD 220 (the reigns of Ptolemy I and Caracalla) from a contextual point of view. To collect together the statuary items (recognised as statues, statue heads and fragments, and inscribed bases and plinths) that are identifiably royal and have a secure archaeological context, that is a secure find spot or a recoverable provenance, within Egypt. This material was used, alongside other types of evidence such as textual sources and numismatic material, to consider the distribution, style, placement, and functions of the royal statues, and to answer the primary questions: where were these statues located? What was the relationship between statue, especially statue style, and placement? And what changes can be identified between Ptolemaic and Imperial royal sculpture?

From analysis of the sculptural evidence, this book was able to create a catalogue of 103 entries composed of 157 statuary items, and use this to identify the different styles of royal statues that existed in Ptolemaic and Imperial Egypt and the primary spaces for the placement of such imagery, namely religious and urban space. The results, based on the available evidence, was the identification of a division between sculptural style and context regarding the royal statues, with Egyptian-style material being placed in Egyptian contexts, Greek-style material in Greek, and Imperial-style statues associated with classical contexts. The functions of the statues appear to have also typically been closely related to statue style and placement. Many of the statues were often directly associated with their location, meaning they were an intrinsic part of the function and appearance of the context they occupied, as well as acting as representations of the monarchs. Primarily, the royal statues acted as a way to establish and maintain communication between different groups in Egypt.
Prepared for Eternity A study of human embalming techniques in ancient Egypt using computerised tomography scans of mummies by Robert Loynes. xx+249 pages; illustrated throughout in black & white with 7 colour plates. 156 2015 Archaeopress Egyptology 9. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784911102. £43.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784911119. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

This publication brings together personal analyses of sixty CT scans of ancient Egyptian human mummies collected from many museums throughout the UK and continental Europe. The effect is that of performing ‘virtual autopsies’ (‘virtopsies’) allowing techniques of mummification to be examined. The historical age of the mummies ranges from the Middle Kingdom to the Roman Period. Several new observations are made regarding the preparation of mummies and confirmation of previously described themes is tempered by the observation of variations probably indicating individual workshop practices. The work presents a springboard for further detailed research on the subject.

'This volume contains the results of his studies of sixty scans of mummies, dating from the Middle Kingdom to the Roman Period, collected from various UK and continental European museums. The data obtained is presented in great detail and will undoubtedly prove invaluable in future research into mummification.' - J. Peter Phillips (Ancient Egypt Magazine, 2016)

About the Author:
Robert Loynes is an Orthopaedic Surgeon who, after retirement, carried out the research described in this publication and was subsequently awarded a PhD in Egyptology. His lifelong interest in Egyptology and a lifetime career using medical images fired his passion for the subject of mummy research specifically using CT scans as a tool.
A History of Research into Ancient Egyptian Culture in Southeast Europe edited by Mladen Tomorad. xii+272 pages; illustrated throughout in black & white. 138 2015 Archaeopress Egyptology 8. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784910907. £42.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784910914. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

The history of Ancient Egypt has been studied in the region of Southeast Europe since the end of the nineteenth century. In some of the countries this was not the case for various reasons, but mainly because of the undeveloped scholarly capabilities and institutions, insufficient funds for archaeological research in Egypt, and the lack of cooperation with scholars from other countries.

From the 1960s, however, this situation has changed for the better, firstly with the numerous publications of the diffusion of the Ancient Egyptian cults during Graeco-Roman period, and then with publications (articles, catalogues, books) on Ancient Egyptian collections in various museum institutions located in Southeast Europe.

From the early 1990s one can trace the increased production of various scholarly papers in which researchers from Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia, Romania, and Bulgaria not only researched the Egyptian cults in the Roman Empire, but also on the various aspects of history, religion and literature of Ancient Egypt. Their work, however, was mostly unknown to the scholars outside the region primarily because the results were written in the native languages. This book will try to give a review of the history of the studies of Ancient Egypt done in Southeast Europe, and present some of the latest research.

The book comprises a selection of papers in which scholars from various institutions of the region reviewed the different aspects of past studies and the development of the research of the Ancient Egypt in some countries, along with recent research in the field. We hope that this publication will be useful for all scholars who are unfamiliar with the historiography of this region.
Egyptian Cultural Identity in the Architecture of Roman Egypt (30 BC-AD 325) by Youssri Ezzat Hussein Abdelwahed. x+222 pages; illustrated throughout in black & white. 134 2015 Archaeopress Roman Archaeology 6. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784910648. £37.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784910655. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

Egyptian Cultural Identity in the Architecture of Roman Egypt (30 BC–AD 325) considers the relationship between architectural form and different layers of identity assertion in Roman Egypt. The Roman province of Aegyptus was a peculiar province such that many scholars have generally assumed that it was given a special status in the Roman Empire. The text covers the period from the Roman conquest of Egypt under Octavian in 30 BC to the official recognition of Christianity in AD 325. It stresses the sophistication of the concept of identity, and the complex yet close association between architecture and identity. This monograph is the outcome of four years of research at the Department of Classics and Ancient History, the University of Durham. The book will be of interest and value for both Classicists and Egyptologists working on the archaeology of Egypt under Roman rule and the concept of identity.
The Origins and Use of the Potter’s Wheel in Ancient Egypt by Sarah Doherty. x+140 pages; illustrated throughout in black & white with two colour plates. 131 2015 Archaeopress Egyptology 7. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784910600. £29.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784910617. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

The invention of the wheel is often highlighted as one of humankinds’ most significant inventions. Wheels do not exist in nature, and so can be viewed entirely as a human-inspired invention. Machinery too, was relatively rare in the ancient world. The potter’s wheel is arguably the most significant machine introduced into Egypt, second only perhaps to the drill, the loom and the bellows for smelting metal. In Predynastic Egypt (c3500 B.C.), the traditional methods of hand-building pottery vessels were already successful in producing pottery vessels of high quality on a large scale for the domestic market, so it would seem that the potter’s wheel was a rather superfluous invention. However, the impact of this innovation would not just have affected the Egyptian potters themselves learning a new skill, but also signalled the beginnings of a more complex and technologically advanced society.

Despite many years work on the technology of pottery production it is perhaps surprising that the origins of the potter’s wheel in Egypt have yet to be determined. This present project seeks to rectify this situation by determining when the potter’s wheel was introduced into Egypt, establishing in what contexts wheel thrown pottery occurs, and considering the reasons why the Egyptians introduced the wheel when a well-established hand making pottery industry already existed.

A sequence of videos by the author to compliment her publication can be viewed here.

'While addressing the intricacies of ceramic research, Doherty succeeds in making an often complex subject accessible to the reader, drawing together archaeological, epigraphic and scientific evidence to address the challenges inherent in such a study... The volume is richly illustrated with accompanying images and statistical data, and a comprehensive bibliography will be of considerable use to those interested in furthering their knowledge of this fascinating area of research.' - Anna Garnett (Ancient Egypt Magazine, February/March 2016)
Open Access: Setting the Scene: The deceased and regenerative cult within offering table imagery of the Egyptian Old to Middle Kingdoms (c.2686 – c.1650 BC) by Barbara O’Neill. 123 pages. Exclusive to Open Access. Archaeopress Egyptology . Buy Now

Ancient Egyptian offering table scenes have been explored from chronological and art historical perspectives over the past century of Egyptological research. This descriptive overview has usually centred on the diachronic evolution of philology and food offerings, focussing less frequently on offering table images as discrete elements of highly codified information. The exploration into offering table imagery presented in this study examines two key elements: gender and the performance of ritual incorporated within scene structure. Latent and hidden potential of life within the ancient Egyptian tomb was subject to a complex process of metaphysical transformation achieved through external cult and provisioning provided by the family of the deceased, and through internalised cult present in ritually charged texts and imagery. The hypothesis that the offering table depiction functioned as an influential element in this transformational continuum will be explored in this work. This study investigates gender-based and ritual-dependent afterlife expectations of the deceased over a key phase in Egyptian history from the latter part of the Old Kingdom to the end of the Middle Kingdom Period, c.2686 BC - c.1650 BC. Conclusions indicate that the transformational journey to the afterlife can be understood through a meaningful synthesis of people, produce and ritual embedded within offering table depictions.

Exclusive to Open Access. Download the free Open Access PDF here.

Palaeopathology in Egypt and Nubia A century in review edited by Ryan Metcalfe, Jenefer Cockitt and Rosalie David. viii+169 pages; illustrated throughout in black & white. 125 2014 Archaeopress Egyptology 6. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784910266. £25.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784910273. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

The study of human remains from ancient Egypt and Nubia has captured the imagination of many people for generations, giving rise to the discipline of palaeopathology and fostering bioarchaeological research. This book contains 16 papers that cover material presented at a workshop entitled ‘Palaeopathology in Egypt and Nubia: A Century in Review,’ held at the Natural History Museum, London (August 29–30, 2012), which formed part of a three-year research project, ‘Sir Grafton Elliot Smith: Palaeopathology and the Archaeological Survey of Nubia.’ The papers explore the subject of palaeopathology from its beginnings in the early 1900s through to current research themes and the impact of technological development in the field. Revealing the diverse range of methods used to study human remains in these regions, the book gives readers an insight into the fascinating work carried out over the last century, and suggests some possible future directions for the field.

'This is a volume of sixteen papers (presented at the 2012 Natural History Museum workshop) which explore the subject of palaeopathology (the study of human remains) from its beginnings in the early 1900s through to the latest technological developments... Complete with black-and-white illustrations and bibliographies, this is an essential guide to one of the most important areas of Egyptological research today.' – Sarah Griffiths (Ancient Egypt Magazine, August 2015)
The Role of the Lector in Ancient Egyptian Society by Roger Forshaw. viii+165 pages; illustrated throughout in black & white. 119 2014 Archaeopress Egyptology 5. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784910327. £31.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784910334. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

The lector is first attested during the 2nd Dynasty and is subsequently recognised throughout ancient Egypt history. In previous studies the lector is considered to be one of the categories of the ancient Egyptian priesthood. He is perceived to be responsible for the correct performance of rites, to recite invocations during temple and state ritual, and to carry out recitations and perform ritual actions during private apotropaic magic and funerary rites. Previous treatments of the lector have rarely considered the full extent of his activities, either focusing on specific aspects of his work or making general comments about his role. This present study challenges this selective approach and explores his diverse functions in a wide ranging review of the relevant evidence. Why did he accompany state organised military, trading and mining expeditions and what was his role in healing? In the temple sphere he not only executed a variety of ritual actions but he also directed ritual practices. What responsibilities did he fulfil when sitting on legal assemblies, both temple-based and in the community? Activities such as these that encompassed many aspects of ancient Egyptian life are discussed in this volume.

'The term ‘lector’ is a familiar one to any student of Egyptology, frequently coupled with the word ‘priest’. A lector priest would be expected to have had an important role in Egyptian religion, performing essential rituals and reciting the appropriate words to accompany them. This new, scholarly study by Roger Forshaw demonstrates that the lector had a far wider role than a purely priestly one... This comprehensive work should furnish even the most demanding researcher with as much useful information as he or she could wish.' - Ancient Egypt Magazine, July 2015

About the Author:
Roger Forshaw has a background in dental surgery having qualified at Leeds University before entering general dental practice. He went on to study Egyptology at the University of Manchester obtaining an MSc in Biomedical Egyptology and a PhD in Egyptology. He is at present a research associate at the KNH Centre for Biomedical Egyptology at the University of Manchester where he teaches physical anthropology and is researching into health, disease and healing practices in ancient cultures.
Ägyptens wirtschaftliche Grundlagen in der mittleren Bronzezeit by Rainer Nutz. x+177 pages. German text with English summary.. 118 2014 Archaeopress Egyptology 4. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784910303. £32.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784910310. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

Economic issues are seemingly neglected topics within Egyptology. This study attempts to highlight selected economic aspects of the first half of the second millennium BC. Economy is embedded in society, but the societal community itself is embedded in its environments: on the one hand the physical-organic locality, including those ecologic restrictions enforced on it, and the relative cultural system on the other. In this work the so-called ‘Heqanakht Papyri’ are presented as case-studies to combine a more general economic picture with concrete information concerning Heqanakht’s household, in an attempt to develop an overall picture of his activities, even if it must remain fragmentary. By doing so, one or more missing tesserae may perhaps be suggested for the fragmentary mosaic that is Egypt in the Middle Bonze Age.
Alexandria’s Hinterland Archaeology of the Western Nile Delta, Egypt by Mohamed Kenawi. xii+241 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. 116 2014. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784910143. £48.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784910150. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

This volume contains detailed information about 63 sites and shows, amongst other things, that the viticulture of the western delta was significant in Ptolemaic and Roman periods, as well as a network of interlocking sites, which connected with the rest of Egypt, Alexandria, North Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean and Aegean. Far from being a border area — as perhaps it had been in the Pharaonic period — the west Delta network exerted an important economic production influence over a very wide area. In addition, with access to medieval and later Arabic sources, Kenawi’s discussion of the sites has an added dimension not found in the work of western scholars. Mohamed Kenawi’s meticulous and determined work has resulted in an improved set of data for the Delta and shown how its potential can be tapped.

'Kenawi's main interest is economic production: wine, olive oil and amphorae in which agricultural products were transported, but he also briefly raises questions about the cultural character of the landscape: was this an essentially Egyptian landscape, with few (urban) pockets of Graeco-Roman culture? Or was the latter more widespread and deep-rooted? Or put another way, what was the extent -and limit- of Alexandria's ability to shape communities of its hinterland?' - Robert Witcher (Antiquity, vol 90:349, February 2016)
Body, Cosmos and Eternity: New Trends of Research on Iconography and Symbolism of Ancient Egyptian Coffins edited by Rogério Sousa. viii+203 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black and white. 107 2014 Archaeopress Egyptology 3. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784910020. £35.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781784910037. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

This volume, edited by Rogério Sousa, is part of the scholarly ferment which has wheeled around the subject of ‘coffin’ during the last twenty years. Its magic and religious evaluation identifies it from time to time as body container, but at the same time substitute body for the deceased, a maternal womb in which the regeneration will occur, a microcosm, tomb, funerary temple, as well as a conduit to the dead, a powerful tool activated by means of the Opening of the Mouth ritual. -From the Foreword, by Alessia Amenta

In February 2013, the Symposium Body, Cosmos and Eternity: the Symbolism of Coffins in Ancient Egypt convened at the historical building of the University of Porto to debate conceptual frameworks underlying the contemporary study of Egyptian coffins. Rising from the close association with the depiction of the mummified body, the anthropoid coffins soon absorbed a rich mythological imaginary related to the constellation of Nut, the mother goddess of the sky supposed to give birth to Osiris, and evolved continuously, integrating larger and more complex sets of beliefs, mirroring the increasingly bolder use of coffins in the funerary rituals. It was this complex set of beliefs involving the coffin that we proposed to explore in this series of symposia. Following our original purpose, the studies presented in this volume display an excellent overview on the new trends of research on coffin studies, with diverse contributions concerned either with symbolism or social significance of coffins, museums´ collections or archaeological finds. These studies superbly showcase the richness of coffins as documental sources for the study of Egyptian religion, economy and society.

'The individual contributions are well structured and clearly laid out. A particular highlight is the extensive photographic material... In summary, the present volume is an appealing and successful publication. It is highly recommended for professional scientists, but is likely to be difficult for the Egypt-interested layman.' (Translated from the German review: von Manuela Gander M.A., Berlin, http://www.antikewelt.de)

Dating the Tombs of the Egyptian Old Kingdom by Joyce Swinton. vii+191 pages; illustrated throughout in black and white. 96 2014 Archaeopress Egyptology 2. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781905739820. £34.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781905739882. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

The decorated tombs of the Egyptian Old Kingdom offer detailed knowledge of a society that in all probability was the first nation state in history. Yet scholars continue to find it difficult to access the full potential of this great body of data because so few of the tombs can be dated with sufficient precision to provide a relative chronology for the evidence they offer. The system of dating these monuments presented here builds on the work of previous scholars.

In this volume the author explains how the dating method was devised. This required establishing ‘life-spans’ for 104 criteria, features drawn from tomb iconography. The system is then applied to Memphite and provincial monuments spanning the Fourth to the Sixth Dynasties. The findings are that the more criteria a monument contains, the closer the system can narrow its date, certainly to a particular reign and within a generation in some cases. The final chapter analyses and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the system.
Cultural Expression in the Old Kingdom Elite Tomb by Sasha Verma. vi+288 pages; illustrated throughout in black and white. 95 2014 Archaeopress Egyptology 1. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781905739783. £40.00 (No VAT). Epublication ISBN 9781905739790. £19.00 (Inc. UK VAT) Book contents pageBuy Now

Cultural Expression in the Old Kingdom Elite Tomb considers the material and immaterial culture left behind by the ancient Egyptian elite in their tombs starting some 5000 years ago. The book intends to understand this culture reflecting the ‘intention’ of the ancient Egyptians. All these ‘intentions’ are now inaccessible to us, a paradox indeed.

The author starts by examining the ways in which other Egyptologists have understood tomb culture over the past century. Two main clusters of thought dominate the history of this topic, the literal and/or the symbolic meaning. The literal is a popular approach for the modern world; the symbolic encompasses the ancient Egyptians’ ideas about the meaning of life in this and the next world, and metaphysical perfection. The author uses a third mid-way course between the literal and the symbolic; i.e. an attempt to study the evidence in its reality and to search for common, universal factors which may be present and which may aid understanding.

The result is an inventory, analysis and synthesis of the core components of Egyptian cultural dynamics as reflected in the iconographic evolution of Old Kingdom elite tombs. New horizons are opened up for describing and interpreting cultural data of many different levels (identity, ideology as social layers, and static versus dynamic as cultural mechanisms). The work goes beyond mainstream Egyptology, because the findings, apart from a specific Egyptian core, also have universal implications since comparison with other cultures shows comparable phenomena.
Arabic legal and administrative documents in the Cambridge Genizah Collections Genizah Series N. 10 (2006 reprint of original 1993 edition) by Geoffrey Khan . 567 pages with 24 b/w plates; softcover. 23 2007. ISBN 1905739044. £60.00 (No VAT). Buy Now

This volume, originally published by Cambridge University Press and now reprinted by Archaeopress, contains editions of over 150 rare medieval Arabic legal and administrative documents found in the Cairo Genizah, the storeroom of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Fustat (Old Cairo) where hundreds of thousands of worn-out and unusable manuscripts were deposited over centuries by the Jewish community. The documents in Arabic script appear to have found their way into the storeroom largely by accident, but they constitute a unique source for the social and political history of medieval Egypt, especially with regard to the relations between Jews and Muslims. They offer a remarkable insight into the practice of law in medieval Islam and the administrative structure of government offices, mostly from the period of Fatimid rule in Egypt (10th–12th centuries). The documents include depositions, powers of attorney, contracts, petitions to viziers and caliphs (including the famed Saladin), chancery reports and accounts, and comprise extremely important primary source material for a number of disciplines, including Middle Eastern history, Jewish history, Arabic philology and the theory and practice of Islamic law. Geoffrey Khan, Professor of Semitic Philology at Cambridge University, is one of the world’s leading experts in medieval Arabic documents. Reviews of the first edition:‘Meticulously edited...this volume is a scholarly work of the highest order’…Daniel Frank, Le’ela 38 (1994): ‘Khan, as one has learnt to expect, has achieved wonders of decipherment’…D. S. Richards, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 58/1 (Originally published by C.U.P.)